Thursday, January 22, 2015

Go around the world of Buddha statues 21: the encounter with Buddha statue and Hindu statue

仏像を巡って 21: 仏像と神像の出会い


< 1. Siva >
< 1. シバ神 >

This time, I introduce how Buddhism and Hinduism were affected mutually along with the development of the statue in India.
There is a mystery common to the history of religions in it.


The statue of the rise period of Buddhism


Yaksi images were carved to a stone pillar, Bharhut in India, the beginning the 1st century B.C.

< 2.  Yaksi images were carved to a stone pillar, Bharhut in India, the beginning the 1stcentury B.C. >
< 2. 石柱に彫られたヤクシー像、バールフット出土、インド、前1世紀初め >

Commentary:  This railing surrounded the Stupa (pagoda), and Yaksi (goddess of fertility) of a folk belief were arranged at the pillar as a guardian deity.
This became the four heavenly kings that protect north, south, east and west afterward.
This is thing of the earliest stage that God and Buddha were carved in India.

解説: この柵(欄楯)はストゥーパー(仏塔)を囲っていたもので、その柱に民間信仰の神ヤクシー(豊穣の女神)等を守護神として配していた。

A biography of Buddha” Brahma and Indra entreat Buddha to preach”, Gandhara in Pakistan, about the 1st century >

< 3. A biography of Buddha” Brahma and Indra entreat Buddha to preach”, Gandhara in Pakistan, about the 1st century >
< 3. 仏伝「梵天勧請」、ガンダーラ出土、パキスタン、1世紀頃 >

Commentary:  In the lower left, Bo-ten joins his hands in prayer to Buddha on bended knees, and the other side is Taishaku-ten.
Bo-ten is called Brahma in Brahmanism, and Taishaku-ten is Indra.
Indra was a courageous God and was the top of all Gods in the Brahmanism era, but the position lowered in the Hinduism era.
In the first Buddhist scriptures, the aspect that Gods of Brahmanism entreat Buddha to preach was described.

解説: 向かって左下にひざまずいて釈迦に合掌する梵天、その反対側に帝釈天。

Seated Buddha Triad, Ahicchatra in India, the 2nd century 

< 4.  Seated Buddha Triad, Ahicchatra in India, the 2nd century >
< 4. 仏三尊像、アヒチャトラー出土、インド、2世紀 >

Commentary:  In the left, a statue that wears a scarf and is western-style guards Buddha with having a vajra( beetle).
This became guardians of the temple( Kongorikishi of Nandaimon in Todai Temple) afterward.
The right seems to be Bodhisattva.

解説: 向かって左、スカーフを巻いた西域スタイルの金剛杵を持つ像は仏陀を警護している。

The rise period of Buddhism, from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D.

The birth of Buddha statue was caused by a religious movement of Indian people and the culture policy of a dynasty, and was influenced by western statue expression. Afterward, it developed rapidly from the 1st century to the 2nd century.
Before the birth of Buddha statue, deity statues for a folk belief and simple clay dolls were made.
However, the gods of Brahmanism having the history of 1,000 years were not molded before the birth of Buddha statue.


Actually, beginning to make God statue of the Brahmanism was the first in No.3 fig. and No.4 fig. almost.
While Brahmanism that was formerly prosperous by uniting with royal families had been losing substance, Buddhism won the heart of the people.
Therefore, the Buddhism took in Gods of the Brahmanism in Buddhist scriptures and showed it to the relief engraving afterward.

In the relief engraving, a lot of the Gods help Buddha, ask him for teaching, and follow him.
It showed that Buddha was more dominant than God of Brahmanism.


The statue of the rise period of Hindooism


Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves 

< 5.  Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves >
< 5. アジャンター石窟とエローラ石窟 >

Upper fig.: One of Ajanta Caves. This caves were dug as Buddhist temple in sequence from the 1st century B.C. to the 7th century.
Lower fig.:  It is a Hind temple of Ellora Caves. 
This caves developed as Buddhist temple first, as Hindu temple in the 7-9 century successively, and as Jain temple afterward.

上図: アジャンター、26窟。この石窟群は、前1世紀から7世紀頃まで仏教寺院として次々と掘られていった。
下図: エローラ、16窟のカイラサナータ寺院(ヒンドゥー教)。この石窟群は初期に仏教、7~9世紀にヒンドゥー教、後にジャイナ教の寺院として発展した。

Siva and Vishnu 

< 6.  Siva and Vishnu >
< 6. シヴァ神とヴィシュヌ神 >

Left fig.: Shiva is called Daikoku-ten in Buddhism. in Ellora Caves, the late stage of the 6th century.
Right fig.: Vishnu is called Kichijo-ten in Buddhism. about 401 year.
Commentary :  In this era, Siva, Vishnu and Brahma became the three great Gods of Hindooism.
Hindu God has much avatar, and the Vishnu of the right fig. has head of wild boar and stamps a bad dragon.
Furthermore, this Vishnu changed to Buddha also.

左図: シヴァは仏教では大黒天。エローラ石窟、6世紀後半。
右図: ヴィシュヌは仏教では吉祥天。ウダヤギリ石窟、401年頃。
解説: この時代になると、シヴァとヴィシュヌ、ブラフマーがヒンドゥーの三大神となっていた。

The rise period of Hindooism
Brahmanism was stimulated by the prosperity of Buddhism, and reformed by taking in Gods of a folk belief positively from about the 5th century B.C.
On the other hand, Buddhism reached the prosperity with the birth of Buddha statue, but began the decline before long.
Before long, the Brahmanism was reborn to Hinduism in about the 5th century, and came to get over Buddhism.

Hindu statue that once had served only to enhance Buddha statue’s greatness came to be outstanding as simple substance gradually.
Before long, Caves that were dug in each place changed from Buddhist temple to Hindu temple.



Subsequent deployment


Indra and Taisyaku-ten 

< 7.  Indra and Taisyaku-ten >
< 7. インドラと帝釈天 >

Left fig.: A current picture of Indra in India.
Right fig.:  Taisyaku-ten in Japan (Indra).

左図: インドでの現在のインドラ図。
右図: 日本の帝釈天(インドラ)。

Hokke-do of Todai Temple

< 8. Hokke-do of Todai Temple 
< 8. 東大寺法華堂 >
Commentary:  Two statues of Four Heavenly Kings is arranged in right and left from the outside to protect a principal statue, and two statues of Konngourikishi were located on the inner side of these.

解説: 本尊を守護するように外側から2体の四天王、その内側に金剛力士が左右に配されている。


Two impressive things happened here.
At first, priests seem resistant to express the Buddha by iconography. 
However, as people had desired the material symbol, the expressing by iconography had developed rapidly with getting the example of competitive religion or outside world.

Two competitive religions take in the Gods of opponent religion.
I was not able to state it clearly this time, but each religion had internalized the opponent doctrine with taking in God statues, and had come to accommodate a request from people more.



The religion in the world has developed through the competition and the mixture such as the relation of Buddhism and Hindooism.


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