Friday, February 28, 2014

The society and the information 23: Wonder of brain and nerve

 brain and nerve net 

< 1. brain and nerve net >

We take the human body for an example for understanding the information system.

We have taken the United States for an example in order that we may look at the circumstances of the information.
Apprising to a brain about the canceration of internal organs is like that whistle-blowing appeals against the corruption of an organization.
In order to prevent runaway war, it was required that people are exactly informed about the information of the government and the battlefield
It is like that a person is perceived a brain's own abnormalities and the situation of the external world by the visual and auditory senses.

We look at the important points from "brain and nerve", in order to understand " society and information",




somatosensation: pain is due to “free nerve ending” only 

< 2. somatosensation: pain is due to “free nerve ending” only >

Wonderfulness of somatosensation
The nerve net and the brain have a skillful control function.

There are a huge number of sensory nerves that feel painfulness, heat, and pressure in our skin.
These nerves have two kinds of signal transmission system.
The pain continues sending the information to a brain, as long as there is a hurt.
On the other hand, if the contact pressure is changeless when a person has been wearing a dress, the information isn't sent.




< 3. Lumbago >
Occasionally, if we do not feel pains such as an injury and lumbago, we may think that it is good.
However, a person that inherently hasn't the pain sense will finish a short life after having wounds all over his body.
He burns with drinking boiling water without knowing it, or becomes lumbago with lifting a heavy thing, and becomes a serious illness irrecoverably.

If even the small part of the brain gets injured, is the pain sense of the whole body paralyzed?
In fact, unlike other sense organs, recognition of the pain is performed in a wide range  with a  brain, and a paralysis of the pain sense is prevented at least from occurring  by damage to a small part of the brain.
Similarly the long sensory nerves that have pierced through a backbone have also separated into two bunches, and it diversifies away risk.



a shrine ritual of fire-walking

< 4. a shrine ritual of fire-walking >

Furthermore, a surprising function

If you encounter an earthquake, suffer from heavy injury with collapsed pillar, and then it is assumed that a fire is imminent.
An acute pain runs, you can hardly run away, and you may normally lose life.
However, the pain vanishes suddenly and you can get away and may be saved.
It is because a neural transmitter substance that is secreted from a brain has prevented the signal of the pain in a connection of the sensory nerve in the backbone.
It is the same as that you virtually hit the anesthesia of the painkiller by yourself in pinpoint.
The same things will have broken out in the brain of an ascetic of fire-walking.


a control system of a pain: A red line is pain signal and a blue line is control signal

< 5. a control system of a pain: A red line is pain signal and a blue line is control signal >

The information such as pains is collected thoroughly, and is chosen depending to the importance of it.
The nerve net is made so that the damage to receive in accidents decreases.
In a process of the evolution, we got the wonderful system that detects the abnormalities of a body surface.

I look at the information system of the human body next time also.



Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Go around the world of Buddha statues 12: the statues of Korea and Japan 4

 Bodhisattva statue “ 観音菩薩像”, 985 years, H.18m 

< 1. Bodhisattva statue “ 観音菩薩像”, 985 years, H.18m >

I approach the reason why the Buddha statues of Korea and it of Japan have been different.

Buddha statues of Goryeo Period (918~1392)
Above image is a stone statue in early Goryeo Period that was made in a momentum of the Buddhism revival.
It is the design with a high regard for shamanism at the sacrifice of truth to life.



Bodhisattva statues of each country

< 2. Bodhisattva statues of each country 

A:  China or Korean Peninsula, Liao Period, the 10~11th century.
B:  China, Song Period, the 10~13th century.
The images A and B of the neighboring countries are alike, and very attractive.
C:  Korea, Goryeo Period, 1333 years.
D:  Korea, Goryeo Period, 1310 years, Japanese collection.
It seems that Buddha statue C of the same period lacks in luster although the Goryeo Buddhist painting D is elaborate and wonderful.
E:  Japan, Daigo-ji, Kamakura Period, 1192 years, by Kaikei.
Like Buddha statue E, the Japanese Buddha statue reached the peak these days.

A: 中国か朝鮮半島、遼時代、1011世紀。
B: 中国、宋時代、1013世紀。
C: 韓国、高麗時代、1333年。
D: 韓国、高麗時代、1310年、日本所蔵。
E: 日本、醍醐寺、鎌倉時代、1192年、快慶作。

The Buddha statues of each country are compared.


Buddha statues” 如来像” of each countries 

< 3. Buddha statues” 如来像” of each countries >

A:  Korea, Buseok Temple, Goryeo Period, the 11~12th century.
B:  Korea, the right statue is bodhisattva, Sinheungsa Temple, Korea Dynasties period, 1651 years.
C:  China, Shanxi or Henan Province, Ming Period, the 16th century.
D:  Japan, Jodo-ji, Kamakura Period, 1195 years, by Kaikei.
The influence of the Tibetan Buddhism is not seen in an expression change of between Korean statue A and B.
Meanwhile, the truth to life seems to have been lost more.

A: 韓国、Buseok Temple, 高麗時代、11~12世紀。
B: 韓国、右は菩薩像、Sinheungsa Temple, 朝鮮時代、1651年。
C: 中国、山西省か河南省、明時代、16世紀。
D: 日本、浄土寺、鎌倉時代、1195年。快慶作。

Splendid Buddha statue and Bodhisattva statue of Korea 

< 4. Splendid Buddha statue and Bodhisattva statue of Korea >

A: Buddha statue, Pulguksa temple, Unified Silla Period, the 8~9th century, national treasure.
B:  Bodhisattva statue, Gyeongju, Korea Dynasties period, 1501 years, treasure.
These two statues have high artistry as representing of Buddha statues of the early period and the latter period in Korean Peninsula.
However, in the time between, it seems that the Buddha statues between Goryeo Period and Korea Dynasties Period lacked in luster.

A: 如来像、仏国寺、統一新羅時代、8~9世紀、国宝。
B: 菩薩像、慶州、朝鮮時代、1501年、宝物。

The reason
1.      In Goryeo Period, the dynasty continued to be invaded by Liao of northern countries and Yuan, and the dynasty extremely declined. Only the dynasty continued, but the country was burnt to the ground, and the antiquities became the ash and people were not able to afford to raise the artistry of the Buddha statue.
2.      When Goryeo was dominated by Yuan, the influence of the Tibetan Buddhism appeared in the crown and the posture of the statues of Bodhisattvas and Four Heavenly Kings in Goryeo. As for this, China was the same, too. However, the facial expression of Buddha and Bodhisattva statues kept the originality of Korean Peninsula.
3. In Korea Dynasties period, the dynasty abolished many temples and oppressed Buddhism. Therefore the execution and the preservation of Buddha statue fell into desuetude.


However, there is still a problem.


“持国天” of Four Heavenly Kings of each countries 

< 5.  “持国天” of Four Heavenly Kings of each countries >

A:  China, Beijing, Ming Period, the 14~17th century.
B: China, Tang Period, the 9th century.
C: Korea, Beomeosa temple.
D: Japan, To-ji Temple, Heian Period, 839 years.
The fearful face of Knogorikishi statues is common to China, Korea, and Japan, but the fearful face of Four Heavenly Kings statues seems to be only Japan.
Four Heavenly Kings statues in China and Korea seem to express dignity and influence.
On the other hand, in Japan, Four Heavenly Kings statues were assumed the same role of Knogorikishi. Therefore coercing and terrorizing seems to have been emphasized.

A: 中国、北京大覚寺、明時代(1417世紀)に再建。
B: 中国、唐時代、9世紀。
C: 韓国、梵魚寺、年代不明。
D: 日本、東寺、平安時代、839年。

Bishamonten of Four Heavenly Kings: Shizuoka prefecture, Kamakura period, the 12th century 

< 6.  Bishamonten of Four Heavenly Kings: Shizuoka prefecture, Kamakura period, the 12th century >

There, I recollect above statue.
I thought it was the representation with a folly of youth of genius Unkei.
But if perchance he knew Four Heavenly Kings statue of continent, then he might have defied the trend of Japan in those days.

The above explanation is only my reasoning.
I approach the origin of the Buddha statue from the next time.





Monday, February 24, 2014

Travel to South Korean 10: What did I feel in this travel?

  from a tour bus 

< 1.  from a tour bus >
I write the change and the culture that I felt in my body.

We ran through Korea with a tour bus, and were tired because long riding.
Further we were tired because getting anxious about his driving.
We became nervous continuously because the bus had passed frequently a car, interrupted between cars, and been braked suddenly.



The suburbs of Pusan”釜山” and Daegu”大邱” 

< 2.The suburbs of Pusan”釜山” and Daegu”大邱 >
Whenever I come to Korea, I was surprised by the forest of high-rise apartments in suburbs.
Brand-new and elegant high-rise apartments and neat gardens and fence stand out.


a resort hotel and park of Seoraksan” 雪岳山” 

< 3. a resort hotel and park of Seoraksan” 雪岳山 >
I saw people who enjoyed the hotel life in a large-scale resort.
In addition, I saw the scene that men and women of advanced age had been enjoying sightseeing in big numbers weekdays.
The dress was colorful and they was enjoyed the fashion.
When I watched TV, young actors who were familiar in Japan had been advertising the outdoor jacket frequently.


Liancourt Rocks “ 竹島“

< 4. Liancourt Rocks “ 竹島 >
On the street, I was surprised with seeing Liancourt Rocks (islands) had been pictured greatly on the side of one bus.
I asked a guide it, and a sightseeing tour of Liancourt Rocks seemed to be popular.
When I turned on TV on early morning in a hotel, a picture of a military exercise and Liancourt Rocks was flowing along with the broadcast start.
If I think deeply, since the Korean War, because Korea have continued a wartime regime, Korea will need to maintain a feeling of tension.



< 5. Daege >
I realize economic development of Korea whenever I come.
I am surprised at the growth of city, the extension of railroad and expressway, the development of the shopping area.


a scenery from an expressway 

6. a scenery from an expressway >
Korean geographical feature resembles Japan well, and the sea surrounds the country, and mountains occupy most and there is four seasons also.
However, having been connected with the continent led this country to different fate from Japan.


 earnest believer

< 7. earnest believer >
Thing that I was thinking as traveling at Korea is that many antiquities and buildings became ashes because this ground had received invasion of foreign countries many times. 
Conversely I thought the wonder of the history that Japan was a good luck because Japan was an island in the east edge of a continent.

Thank you for visiting these articles.



Friday, February 21, 2014

History of sickness and medical art 21: India 1

Brahman God 

< 1. Brahman God >

We look at medicine of India at about the first millennium B.C.
There was a medical system called Ayurveda in India.
Before looking at it, we survey Indian culture and religion of the day.

As for the ancient record of India, the time when it was written is ambiguous, and the contents are almost the scripture and the myths.
The spread of writing began around the 5th century B.C. by rule class.
There are few ruins that tell the history of the time vividly except some king's epitaphs.



Kausanmbi: a city remains at the 7th century B.C. 

< 2. Kausanmbi: a city remains at the 7th century B.C. >

The Aryan who came in northwest India from about 1500 years B.C. ruled the indigenous people.
Then they produced Brahmanism, and established the sacred book (Veda).
The contents of this Veda were mainly the songs praising for gods and religious service, and were inherited with the word-of-mouth between teachers and students.
The beginning of Veda was considerably old, and many myths and the Scriptures were produced over long years.  
Brahmanism managed the festival of the royal family, and was also concerned with the religious service of village after village.
The Brahman who has monopolized the festival had very big power and privilege.


< The civilization area at the first millennium B.C. >

From around 500 years B.C., a new breath arose in the religious world.
It is that esoteric books (Upanishad) making up for Veda was produced.
Soon the freethinkers who criticized Brahmanism began activity.
From among them, people appeared who dived into public and created a new religion.
In this way, Buddhism and Jainism were born.
The center of the civilization and the religion at the time is middle basin of Ganges.



< 4. Atharvaveda >

I quote two phrases from Atharvaveda (this sacred book including many incantations was established at about 1000 years B.C.).
"A thing in thee, a thing in thy body, and it are fearful things.
A thing in hair and a thing in thy eyes.
I will beat the all things by my words.
As with Savitr God may encourage thou.”

“As wind, as thinking power, and as a bird.
A child of October!  Let you fly along with childbirth.
You give a birth and must descend from it.”

Lower phrases are the incantation for avoiding a miscarriage.


「汝自身の中にあるもの、汝の身体の中にあるもの、それは恐るべきものである。髪の中にあるもの、さてはまなざしの中にあるもの。そのすべてを言葉によって打ち負かそう。サヴィトリ神が汝を鼓舞するように! 」


a ceremony of the modern Hinduism

< 5.  a ceremony of the modern Hinduism >

The important duty of Brahman was to remove accident and illness by religious service (altarage) and incantations.

We look at the medicine of India from the next time.



Thursday, February 20, 2014

Winter Awaji island: a view of Strait

 viewing of Yura harbor and an small island from a observatory 

< viewing of Yura harbor and an small island from a observatory >

Clouds covered thickly and cold wind blew, but I went to the southeast end of Awaji island.
I photographed the straits, a shape of an island, the luminous sea dully, a desolate wintry forest.

In above photo, the veiled shape of an island in the distance is a backbone of Awaji island extending from here, and the right side end is Akashi Strait.



 an island and Kada Cape in the distance

an island and Kada Cape in the distance >
The left of Kada Cape is Osaka, the right is Wakayama, and the sea in front of it is Kitan strait.


Yura town is on the left, an small thready island is on the center, and spreading sea is Osaka bay

< Yura town is on the left, an small thready island is on the center, and spreading sea is Osaka bay >
Yura town is blessed with wonderful marine products of Osaka Bay and some straits.
Side of the narrow waterway in where a white wake can be seen on the right side of the photo, a Fudo Myoo is standing as glaring.


Fudo Myoo

< Fudo Myoo >
This statue contains a will that local fishermen pray for safety.


Forest of a hill looking down at strait 

< Forest of a hill looking down at strait  >
While strong wind from sea blows violently, the forest is lumping it now.


red blossoms of Japanese plum

< red blossoms of Japanese plum
There was only one Japanese plum having red blossoms in the forest.


a view of south side from the observatory 

< a view of south side from the observatory >
If it is fine, Shikoku must be seen in the distance.


viewing of Nu-shima from a mountain path 

< viewing of Nu-shima from a mountain path >
This island is small, but people are living in it.


Wakayama is seen on the right side far away 

< Wakayama is seen on the right side far away >

brown seaweed fishery

< brown seaweed fishery >

The shore facing the strait on the south side 

< The shore facing the strait on the south side >
In the narrow place where the precipice falls into the strait, one road runs endlessly.
Nu-shima can be seen far away.