Sunday, March 30, 2014

History of sickness and medical art 24: India 4


< 1. Buddha >

How did Buddha who participated actively around the 6th century B.C. face the illness?
We will see new breath in it.


About Buddha of the day
Brahmanism that was mainstream of the day was mainly role to provide offering and ceremony for God.
Buddha who wanted new path to the salvation preached the teachings along with doing communal living with many pupils and traveling over villages.
This priest group involved the participation of all classes, man and woman.
They didn't work, accepted charity, didn't have goods, and lived equal and simple life.
Acceding to the rule that Buddha decided was a single condition that the members can belong to the group.
During several hundred years, the pupils had carried on the tradition of these rules, and then these became the Scripture being calling Vinaya-Pitaka.


Turmeric: medicines and curry powder 

< 2.  Turmeric: medicines and curry powder >

From Vinaya-Pitaka, below are an extract and a summary.

A priest suffered from a sickness. Everybody nursed him, but he didn't recover. He went to a slaughterhouse of pig, and ate the uncooked meat and drank the blood. His disease thereby recovered. Buddha said, “ I forgive the sick person for eating uncooked the meat and drinking the blood.””

“ I allow use of roots-root of turmeric, ginger, and iris, etc.- as medicines. Although these are appetizing and add a flavor, healthy person must not eat it. You will commit a crime, if you eat them though these are not necessary.”

“ Ananda, because I am out of condition, I want to drink a purgative. Ananda consulted Jivaka. The doctor ordered Ananda that he must paint fats the body of Buddha for a few days, and then the doctor gave him a light purgative. The doctor said to Buddha that you should refrain from liquid meal until you completely recovered. And Buddha recovered.”

Buddha knew the medical art of the time, and applied it actively.
He hadn't the idea of the sickness that was caused by the violation of taboo or the punishment by God.
In addition, he was a friend with skilled physician Jivaka.







< 3.  Map  >

Taxila ruins, after the 6th century B.C. 

< 4.  Taxila ruins, after the 6th century B.C. >

About legendary doctor Jivaka.
He was a skilled physician that participated actively in the capital of Magadha country, cured the king and was also Buddha's court physician.
Although he was of low birth, he become a pupil of a doctor in Taxila, learned the medical art of Caraka samhita, and then he went back.
Why did he go to the far-off Gandharan capital?
At the time, Gandhara in the northwest was under the influence of the Persia civilization.
On the other hand, he probably thought that learning of new medical art was difficult in Magadha country where Brahmanism's ideology had permeated in.  


Friday, March 28, 2014

Travel to Turkey 3: Ephesus 2

Great Theater 

< 1.  M:  Great Theater >

I introduce remaining half of ancient city Ephesus.

The seating capacity of this theater is 25,000 people.
A fight against wild beast by gladiator was also performed here.



a reproduced image of Ephesus 

< 2. a reproduced image of Ephesus >
An order of Tour of inspection begins from the right side of above map.
The alphabet on the map shows the position of following photo.


Hadrian’s Temple, the 2nd century

< 3.  I:  Hadrian’s Temple, the 2nd century >
This Hadrian’s Temple is small, but remains as splendid temple.
A goddess is carved in the center of the front arch, and Monster Medusa is carved in the back semicircle.


Celsus Libraly, the 2nd century

< 4.  K: Celsus Libraly, the 2nd century  >
A thing to attract eyes most in this Ephesus is the front entrance of this library.
It was decorated with splendid sculptures and women statues, and they shined in sunlight.
There were 12,000 books in those days.
The arched gate of the right hand is an entrance to Commercial Agora.


Commercial Agora 

< 5.  L: Commercial Agora >
This Agora was in corridor having roof that surrounds a courtyard, and the pillars of the day remain in the back.
The center back is the library, and the left back is main path of sightseeing that we have walked through.


Harbor Street

< 6.  N:  Harbor Street
This street extends straight to a harbor from a front of the Great Theater.
The Agora is located immediately on the left.


 various sculptures 

< 7.  various sculptures  >
A:   the Monster Medusa of Hadrian’s Temple.
B:   a statue.
C:   a cross was carved in upper of the gate.
D:   a female image in the entrance of the library.

A: ハドリアヌス神殿の怪物メドゥサ。
B: 像。
C: 門に彫られた十字架。
D: 図書館の女性像。

Ephesus is an important place for Christian.
From ancient times, here was a strategic place of Christianity propagation, and Paulo of 12 apostles engaged in it.
Moreover, it is communicated that mother Mary of Jesus spent an afterlife with John, and there is the oldest Virgin Mary church.
Furthermore, important Christian councils were held several times here.


Artemis temple site, the 8th century BC 

< 8.  Artemis temple site, the 8th century BC >
This temple was located once on the place in which only one pillar stands on the vacant lot.
It is communicated that the building that was considered as being seven wonders in the world was 20m in height and width 55mx115m.
On the back hill, a castle built in the 5thcentury is seen, and St. John church is the right side.


a reproduced image of Artemis temple and an Artemis goddess statue

< 9.  a reproduced image of Artemis temple and an Artemis goddess statue >
The Artemis goddess statue has large number of breasts symbolizing fertile fecundity.


souvenir shops

< 10.  souvenir shops >
In souvenir shops, we will purchase some accessories of colorful handicraft – especially cloth products and earthenware.


Wednesday, March 26, 2014

The society and the information 27: information crosses the border

 Golden Misabiko

< 1.  Golden Misabiko was arrested  >

From this issue, we look at how information crossing the border helps people.
First, I take up incidents that happened in current Africa as a theme.

An incident happened in Congo
In 2009, a man was arrested by the national secret intelligence agency.
He was sentenced to a suspended prison term of one year on the charge of "publication of the disinformation" and "threat to national security".
It all started with his announcement that military men and the government official mined uranium illegally from a mine that had closed for a safety and it had been causing the serious environmental disruption.
Furthermore, he exposed that mining rights had been granted to atomic energy company AREVA by a secret agreement of the Congo government and France.
He is Golden Misabiko, President of the Association Africaine de défense des Droits de l'Homme in Katanga province. 
He and the civil-rights activists of cooperator fitted a kidnapping, violence and intimidation.



A: Congo. B: President Kabila of Congo. C: the problematic mine, engraving by hand. D: Former Secretary of State Hillary.

< 2. A: Congo. B: President Kabila of Congo. C: the problematic mine, engraving by hand. D: Former Secretary of State Hillary. >


The civil war that neighboring countries intervenes in a dispute has continued, and this country became impoverished.
This economy accounts for 45% of GDP only by the mineral resources export of diamonds.
Uranium of the problematic mine was used for atom bomb dropped on Japan.
This country has a parliamentary democracy, but the press freedom is extremely low.
According to “press freedom index 2013” by Reporters Without Borders, Congo was the 142nd within 179 countries in the world.


Amnesty international

< 3.  HP of Amnesty international >

Subsequent deployment

It was foreign countries to have saved him.
Media of Europe and America reported this incident and appealed for the issue of environment, human rights and an unjust doubt.
Amnesty International that is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights appealed this incident all over the world, sent the request document to the President of Congo, and conferred with the United Nations.

Former American Secretary of State Hillary Clinton met the President of Congo during her Africa tour in 2009, and requested his release.
His safety was secured, because the world supervised this incident.
In 2013, he stayed in South Africa, and continued the activity.
I seem that the secret agreement in which French president was also involved became unraveling by his exposure.


In Africa, the dig of rare minerals such as uranium, diamond and etc. still produces much darkness – environmental disruption, work accident, conflict, and corruption.

If cooperating with foreign country, it becomes possible to correct the injustice though the country has had little press freedom.



Monday, March 24, 2014

Go around the world of Buddha statues 14: the birth of Buddha statues

Maitreya Bodhisattva “弥勒菩薩立像”, the 2nd-3rd century, h.1.5m, stone

< 1.  Maitreya Bodhisattva “弥勒菩薩立像”, the 2nd-3rd century, h.1.5m, stone >

I have introduced various statues of Asia, and those were created in ancient India.
The birthplace was two places of Gandhara in Pakistan and Mathura in India.
This time, I introduce the statues that were created in Gandhara.

I watched “ the Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, and Mathura, India” in 2003.
When I watched a Buddha statue, I was moved to tears involuntarily.
The life-sized statue was made by black schist, and was lustrous from the shoulder to the chest.
The face was a fine young nobleman style, and there was a meditation world of ancient India and a romance of a mixed civilization in it.
It was felt so that the passion that ancient people had was still confined within the stone statue.



Buddha statue, the 1st- 2nd century, stone 

< 2.  Buddha statue, the 1st- 2nd century, stone >
The Buddha stautue in the round is one of statues that were created for the first time in Gandhara.
The wavelike hair and thick clothes differ from the Buddha statue of East Asia that we know well.
However, how to tie the hair, the point of the forehead, and the downcast-like face have been already expressed.
It shows Buddha is a transcendent existence and philosophizing.


 Buddha Bodhisattva seated statue, the 2nd- 3rd century, h.0.7m, stone

< 3.  Buddha Bodhisattva seated statue, the 2nd- 3rd century, h.0.7m, stone
This was a Bodhisattva statue of Buddha, and Maitreya Bodhisattva or Kannon Bodhisattva was made in those days, too.
The Bodhisattva that was meaning disciplinant was expressed with a figure of an imperial family who was decorated with a crown and accessories.
The relief engraving of the pedestal expresses a story of the prince era of Buddha.
It shows that the prince philosophizes about “suffering” while he sat under a tree covering over his head.
This statue and this relief of the pedestal became one set and showed the story of Buddha.


Buddha statue practicing asceticism, the 2nd- 3rd century, stone  

< 4.  Buddha statue practicing asceticism, the 2nd- 3rd century, stone  >
This statue expresses Buddha that was practicing asceticism of fasting.
After this practicing, he negated the ascetic practices.
Therefore this expression is rare.


Buddha statues in those days

< 5.  Buddha statues in those days >
Left:  Buddha statue, the 1st- 2nd century, h.1.7m, stone.
Right: Bodhisattva statue, the 3rd century, h.1.3m, stone.

左: 仏立像、1~2世紀、片岩、高さ1.7m。
右: 菩薩立像、3世紀、片岩、高さ1.3m。

heads of statues 

< 6.  heads of statues >
The face and the hairstyle of those heads seem to be associated with west Asia style and Greek style.

Next time, I introduce how Buddha statues were created in Gandhara.



Saturday, March 22, 2014

Spring comes around Awaji Island

Plum blossoms

I introduce a sign of spring that I have seen on a walking trail.

Many trees have dropped leaves and are still an appearance of winter.
However, by some trees, grass green leaves are increasing day by day.
Cold has faded away day by day, and sunlight is getting warm.
Weather being suitable for a walk increased and field flowers that delight my eyes increased.



appearance of winter


field mustard


Plum blossoms, narcissus, field mustard, and horsetail are blooming beautifully in fields or footpaths.
Spring seems to come around there now.


Thursday, March 20, 2014

The society and the information 26: Wonder of brain and nerves 4


< 1.  brain when parson was praised, a image of MRI >

I look at a brain function that makes our action and thought most human. 
We do not notice that usually.


Please imagine a little

Emotion-feelings:  your heart beat intensely as soon as you watched a cobra in front. However, if you noticed a glass being in between you and it, the heartbeat would quiet down immediately.

Memory:  Can you remember the pattern of your dinner bowl using every day?  On the other hand, you will be able to remember like that of yesterday about the memory of early childhood.

Motivation:  You have to restrict delicious between-meal eating, in order to wear favorite swimming suit. Every day, controlling your appetite involves appreciable pain.

情動(感情): あなたは目の前のコブラを見たとたん、心臓が激しく鼓動します。しかし、前面にガラスがあることが分かれば、心臓の鼓動はすぐ収まるでしょう。
記憶: あなたは毎日使っているお茶碗の絵柄を思い出せますか。一方、幼い頃の思い出を昨日のように思い出すことがあるはずです。
動機付け: あなたは好きな水着を着る為に、美味しい間食を制限しなければならない。日々、食欲を抑えることはかなりの苦痛が伴います。

Secretion of the neurotransmitter

< 2.  Secretion of the neurotransmitter >

Emotion affects these all

The basic information processing of brain of the human is performing in huge network where 100 billion nerves convey information one by one.
However, if the emotion rouses up once, a wide area of the brain becomes active situation or inhibited situation for a certain period of time, and then it affect the usual information processing.
It is because neurotransmitter was secreted from the cerebral inside - limbic system- as shown above figure.
The main substance is Dopamine, Serotonin and Noradrenalin, etc.
These produce emotions, such as fear, sadness, joy, anger, and dislike.
The function resembles that the fighting spirit and muscularity of a sport player becomes enlarged, because he continues injecting male hormone.


 Neurotransmitter is mixed and complicated emotions are born

< 3.  Neurotransmitter is mixed and complicated emotions are born


1.      There is a part that strongly reacts to fearful things - snake etc. - in brain, and this immediately produces the feeling expression and the body reaction.

2.      In memory or cautions, the emotion - danger, comfortableness etc.- determines the necessity of a lot of those.

3.      The emotion - avoiding fear or uneasiness, demanding for pleasure etc.- affects the action and the judgment. It means intuition.




What I want you to know.
1.       Do you feel loathsomeness about the sexual act of the homosexual?
2.       Will you be glad if you hear that a rich person suffered heavy losses?
3.       When the player of opponent country fails in an international match, are you pleased?

The emotion affects all these reactions
The emotion is influenced by not only heredity but also growth environment and social environment.
The problem means that human is hardly able to recognize the real identity of the emotion by oneself.
Human have experienced adolescence, and then they come to be able to control their emotion so that there is no trouble in their life.

However, the understanding and sympathy to others, other groups, and different things are quite difficult.

I treat another theme from next time.

1.             あなたは同性愛者のセックスに嫌悪感を抱きますか。
2.             あなたはある金持ちが大損したと聞いたら嬉しいですか。
3.             あなたは国際試合で、対戦相手国が失敗すると喜びますか。




Tuesday, March 18, 2014

History of sickness and medical art 23: India 3

Caraka was a famous ancient doctor 

< 1.  Caraka was a famous ancient doctor >

I look at the activity of doctors and the medical groups.


Two red points show Taxila and Varanasi

< 2.  Two red points show Taxila and Varanasi

Appearance of the doctor

Ayurveda includes two major medical books of Caraka samhita and Susruta samhita.
This title originates in each doctor's name.
Caraka was a court physician of Kanishka King of the 2nd century B.C.
Susruta was a surgeon of several centuries B.C.
These medical books came into existence after the 3rd century A.D., but the schools of medical thought that brought about those had been born around the 6th century B.C.
The school of medical thought of Caraca was active in Taxila of Pakistan(Gandhara), and it of Susruta was active in Varanasi(a holy place of Hinduism and Buddhism).
The former adopted the medical treatment and the latter had also adopted surgery treatment.


Orthopedic surgery of a nose

< 3. Orthopedic surgery of a nose  

A world's first orthopedic surgical operation was in ancient India.

It is orthopedic surgery of ear and nose, which was explained in detail by Susruta samhita.
In the upper class of Hindu society, they had a custom of making a hole in their earlobe and also outspreading it.
Moreover, as there was punishment that sliced off a nose, the recovery surgery was required.
The epoch-making method of this surgery was slicing off a skin of patient's jaw or the forehead, and transplanting to the patient's affected part.
Probably, it was carried out in several centuries B.C.
This operation becomes about 1500 years earlier than Europe.
The Indian orthopedic surgery and surgical instrument advanced very much.
However, the anatomy seems to have not advanced, because the dissection was prohibited by Manusmriti (Indian ancient social norm).



< 4.  marma >

In India, there also is marma of body points resembling acupuncture points of China.
However, marma was not connected directly with organ and nerve, and the moxibustion or acupuncture was not provided.


The status of doctor
Early time, the doctors were only Brahman, later were able to be even from the low-ranking hierarchy.
If even a low hierarchy person became doctor, he was ranked the high rank, and tax was exempted from him.
The doctor at Imperial Court had achieved successful career, and he was able to become the important person of the country like Caraka.
The criminal punishments with unsuitable medical treatment by the doctor have been written in Manusmriti.
The cost of treatment was no charge for Brahman and poor, and others were charged according to the economic conditions.
Those who want to become doctor became pupil of teacher, recited Ayurveda, learned the treatment of medicinal herb, received training of the action method, etc.
The pupil had been recognized by the teacher, subsequently had the authorization of king, and became the full-fledged doctor.