Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Misunderstanding of war 4: War of ancient Greece


< the Parthenon >
How did the ancient Greece that is the birthplace of democracy become a military superpower?

The country that once got to know the good taste of war would go toward the way of ruin.

The ancient Greece civilization represented in city-state Athens appeared in the 8th century B.C., and made the influence expand rapidly.

In the 6th century B.C., the Greek Allied Forces defeated the large army of Persia that invaded there.

Then, Greece bloom the flower of art, science, and philosophy, and reached to an extreme of prosperity.

However, it did not continue for a long time.

Soon, the 4th century B.C., Alexander and then Rome will rule over, and it will disappear from history.

Where is the cause of a downfall of the Greek race that was seen by the look of envy from Rome or Europe?

Ancient Greece consisted of a city state group of thousands.

Will the image of your ancient Greece be the chalky Parthenon and the democracy of Athens?

It may be able to be said that prosperity and civilization of Athens are based on trade and the progressive spirit born from there.

Furthermore, the democracy induced the strong army, promoted increase of the scale, became a champion of the Mediterranean soon, obtained many fortunes, and enabled construction of the huge shrine.







 密集方陣隊形、high density formation、phalanx, heavy-armed soldiers,Hoplite

< phalanx of Hoplite, Wikipedia >
The ancient Greece soldier's strength was in the high density formation "phalanx” by heavy-armed soldiers” Hoplite”.

The soldiers of this phalanx had a spear with right hand, and a pavis with left hand, and usually ranked with eight persons widthwise, and ten or more rows continued back.

On the flat ground, when the signal of the battle started, both armies progressed quickly and collided head-on and pushed one another, it battled by poking with a spear. This required high mutual reliance to soldiers.

At the time of the first stage, if the enemy collapsed and fled, they did not pursue.
And they didn't use a shameful jump toolssuch as stone throwing.

They were farmers who protect their land and were citizens.

Athens has distinguished itself soon. Athens had a admirable harbor and it aimed at the navy power which has an overwhelming number of ancient warships” trireme”.

Athens became a financial watchdog, and the leader due to had achieved the greatest distinguished services in the role of the Persian wars.

the first stage, although the oarsman of trireme was a slave, for arms buildup Athens carried out a mass recruitment by citizen qualification and the salary .

Then, the situation unexpected to democracy Athens occurred.

Although the civic council decided the start of the war, the voice desired the war increasingly increased.

The reasons were the compensation, tax collection and pillage from the defeated nation by victory, and the salary to the soldier.

Those days, tens of thousands of sailors were always rowing the warships for the patrol on the Greek surrounding ocean area.






 三段櫂船、trireme、ancient warships

< trireme, Wikipedia >
Two big societal changes were produced here. They considered that the war was just the greatest source of economic earnings.

Although Greece was proud of the same race, in practice,  somewhere, they repeated war every year and there plentifully were war continue for tens years also, like the confrontation of Athens and Sparta.

When it became like this, the faith in an old battle was no longer protected, the starvation of the citizen by sea blockade, the killed soldier by the flamethrower, and slaughter of the young-and-old-of-both-sexes civilian became a commonplace.

Although there was a form of the democracy of Athens, the politics was deteriorating.

Since only a small number of citizen fought in Sparta, the man's population was decreasing.

Athens carried out the reckless Sicily expedition, and they lost tens of thousands of soldier and hundreds of the warships. In this way, they fought mutually and exhausted.

When north Macedonia stood up, Greece had neither uniting volition nor military power.

Although this can also be called the end way of a mobocracy, the essence is being unable to slip out of the sweet trap of war.

during 100 yearsthe heavy-armed soldiers of the citizen whom Socrates was proud of became a cruel slaughter.






Saturday, October 27, 2012

Birth of primitive art 4: Development of the cave paintings

ゲナスドルフ,女性線刻画,Female line-engraving drawing 、 Gonnersdorf ruin, Germany  

 < Female line-engraving drawing in Gonnersdorf ruin, Germany  >
Last time, we looked at the movable statues in the last stage of the glacial epoch.

From this time, we look at the brilliant cave paintings of a glacial epoch.

The Fine arts suddenly bloomed on the ground of arctic cold.

First, I do the last supplementary explanation. Last time, there was an opinion that the Venus image of Nebra is visible to a penis. The above figure is the line-engraving drawing of the clay stone in Gonnersdorf ruin that were making the same Venus statues as Nebra. Two women that have an arm were drawn on this stone. Thus, it is guessed that the Venus statue is the thing developed from the female image. Thank you for the precious opinion.





 シャーベット洞窟,馬,horse、Chauvet cave
< horse 、 Chauvet cave
Cave paintings appeared a little later than movable statues for a while. There is no painting outside a cave until the last stage comes. The oldest thing is in Chauvet cave in south France, 31000 years ago. This limestone cave amounts to 400 m in length. In the inner wall, there were the colored pictures of 300 over, the line-engraving drawing of 300 over, many signs, and many handprints.

A horse, the extinct cow, a bison, a bear, a mammoth, a reindeer, the owl, the lion, the hyena were painted on the surface of the wall. The main paints the black of charcoal and the red of Ocher. There is also a room unified in each color. The animal that is running in groups is drawn, and two fighting rhinoceroses that were drawn by the forcible outline look vividly.



 バイソンと人,A bison and a person、Lascaux cave 
< fighting rhinoceroses 、 Chauvet cave >
Secondly, the cave painting is in the Cosquer cave facing the Mediterranean in France. It is divided into many handprints drawn 27000 years ago and the animal group drawn 19000 years ago. Although many handprints are seen in other caves, the paint included in the mouth is sprayed on the hand put on the wall, and a picture is made. A penguin and a seal are rare, although the painting animal is a lot of horses in common with other caves.

The famous Lascaux cave painting appears in France 17000 years ago. The Lascaux cave is one of the 30 caves of the gorges in the limestone region. The stone tool and a bone implement of 100,000 points are found from this whole region. Although there is a trace of a life, there is a cave without paintings, and the caves like this is about half. The Lascaux cave consists of three rooms, is about 70 m in full length, and the largest placesThe hole of a bullare a hole of 9m wide, and Fig. 1.



ラスコー,牡牛のホール,The hole of a bull、Lascaux cave 
< fig.1 The hole of a bull 、Lascaux cave >
The side and the ceiling side of a cave mainly have many hundreds of horses, cows, deer, and bisons, and there is a picture of a maximum of 5.5m cow in them. Moreover, there are the colored picture and line-engraving drawings that describe a goat, a sheep, an antelope, a human being, and a geometrical pattern. These numbers are 2000 points. There are 500 handprints that man sprayed paints. Red clay and charcoal were melted and mixed with animal fat, blood, and sap, and black, red, yellow and tea, and brown paints were made. It is thought that the painting brush uses the moss, the hair of an animal, and a wooden branch or one’s own finger.


 戦う犀、fighting rhinoceroses,Chauvet cave
< fig.2 A bull and a horse  、Lascaux cave
Fig. 2 in the hole of a bull is painted over picture. Fig. 2 in the hole of a bull was painted over  some pictures repeatedly. The first pictures that was painted was a horse group of gray with running fast, on lower side. Subsequently, it was one horse that has a black mane in the center of the left, and the red body. Subsequently, it was a bull realistically was drawn by the black outline. Finally, a deer was painted in the pictures by only red on lower right.

牡牛のホールにある図2は重ね描きされている。最初に描かれたのが下部の灰色の疾駆する馬群. 次いで左中央の黒いたてがみと赤い胴体を有する一頭の馬、次いで黒の輪郭線で写実的に描かれた牛、最後に右下の赤一色の鹿が書き加えらえた。

 バイソンと人,A bison and a person、Lascaux cave 
< fig.3 A bison and a personLascaux cave >
Fig. 3 shows the only scene in which a person appears. It is rare that a person appears in the fine arts of the Old Stone Age, and even if drawn, it is childish. In this picture, there is a bison that a spear is stuck in and from which an internal organ fall out, and the person fall down before that.
On the lower side, there is a spear and a stick (probably an atlatl) that was attached a bird decoration. The person's head is like a bird with a beak, it is seen that 4 fingers and the erect sexual organsIt seems to have some kind of message in this picture.  The interpretation is a hunting scene, a transformer state of a shaman, a ceremony, etc.

Next time, I look at the last of cave fine arts and the shining time.



Thursday, October 25, 2012

Travel in Japan: The Ise Shrine and a spiny lobster


< The place of the Ise Shrine and a hotel is a red mark
Our family went to visit the Ise Shrine and to eat a spiny lobster dish.

Ise is introduced with a photograph.

A ban of net fishing of spiny lobster was removed from October 1.

The fishing ports in Ise Bay liven up a lot.

Many hotels that serve the lobster dish are located in this town.

Of course, my pleasure of supper is a spiny lobster dish.






spiny lobster dish,伊勢エビ料理

< a spiny lobster dish >
The cooking are some spiny lobster, shellfish, fish, etc.

We stayed overnight and walked along the seashore early in next morning.




< seashore >
The spiny lobster fishery has spread the net to sunken rocks in the seashore, and pulls up it in next morning.


漁港、相差、漁師、the fishing port

< the fishing port >
People have removed a fish and a lobster one by one by hand from the net that taken down from the ship.


spiny lobster、伊勢海老

< “This is large!” >
The lady proudly showed me the biggest spiny lobster.

The husband-and-wife rock in Futamiura、夫婦岩、二見浦

< The husband-and-wife rock in Futamiura >
Two rocks are the famous things, believed since ancient times.


street of souvenir store in front of the Ise shrine 、伊勢神宮前

< street of souvenir store in front of the Ise shrine  >
These rows of stores are reproducing the atmosphere of 200 years ago.


 伊勢神宮、ise shrime

< the Ise shrine  >
The Ise shrine is surround by quiet and vast woods and a clean river is flowing through it.

Many huge trees over 1000 years old stood everywhere.

I ate the dishes of sea, looked at the beautiful seashore, took a walk in the sanctuary, and my heart refreshed.




Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Misunderstanding of war 2 : the First Sino-Japanese War 2

 江華島事件,the Ganghwa Island incident, the First Sino-Japanese War

< the Ganghwa Island incident was a trigger of the First Sino-Japanese War, Wikipedia
This time, I look at the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War from the Korean Peninsula side.

Many Japanese will regard that the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War have slightly involved with the Korean Peninsula.

However, they were receiving interference and domination from Japan government for 70 years.

The beginning of this war is the Ganghwa Island incident in 1875.

This exchange of gunfire began with the provocative action to require opening of Korean ports.

Thereby, the defeated Korea is made to conclude an unequal treaty with Japan and European and American etc., respectively.

Those days, the Korean dynasty continued no less than 480 years. Some problems of the dynasty were social stagnation, internal dispute, and correspondence to great powers.

The coups d'etat of the nobility or the peasantry had occurred frequently.

Japan and Qing came to stay on according to the request of Korea and ceased to return.

The peasantry 's coup d'etat happened in the spring of 1994. It knows as the Donghak Peasant Revolution.

The Korean government, which couldn’t repress the coup d’etat, requested sending troops to Qing.
Soon Japan also sent troops.

Although the Korean government asked both countries for withdrawal, it was refused.

Then, Japan occupied the king's palace on July, and made a puppet government that is a pro-Japanese and a civilization group.

In this way, the First Sino-Japanese War started and was the end of the war in next year April.

The peasantry returned each region, and the new government advanced some reforms.

However, when interference of Japan became intense, the peasantry took action on "anti-Japan, anti- civilization" again.






94年春、官吏の腐敗と農民への重税に反発した農民蜂起が起こりました( 甲午農民戦争=東学党の乱)。





東学党の乱,the Donghak Peasant Revolution

< the Donghak Peasant Revolution >
The allied forces of Japan and a puppet government swept this action away.

The sacrifice of this farmer army is called tens of thousands.

Also one year afterward, the Korean public and the farmer's coup d'etat occurred, and were suppressed.

In the meantime, Japan promoted Korean modernization forcibly.

On the other hand, interference in domestic affairs was legalized and the rights of the railroad and the telegraph line were acquired.

Korea was made to consent to make the utmost effort for food reservation of a Japanese army.

Russia and great powers interfere with Japan, and the Russo-Japanese War (19041905) soon started.

After the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea the protectorate of Japan. And Korea afresh was merged into Japan in 1910.

The Korean governor-general's office was established, and the full-scale colonial policy started.






植民地の鉄道網 ,The network of railroads of colonial days

< The network of railroads of colonial days >

In 1919, Japan acquired the Manchuria Railway from Russia. And a military unit that guards the railway became independent.

In 1932, this staff officer schemed without permission and made Manchukuo of puppet government here.  In this way, the expansion of the occupation was repeated.

In 1937, near Beijing, beginning with a trifling firefight, the Sino-Japanese War happened.

In this way, over 70 years, Japan advanced from landing Korean Peninsula to Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War.

In the meantime, Korea continued being a base of munitions of war, food supply, and soldier's supply.

Speaking in the extreme, it seem that the military began this war and the government followed from after that.


1937年、北京近くで、またも些細な銃撃戦が発端となって中国との戦争が始まった。70年かけて, 日本は朝鮮半島上陸から太平洋戦争へと進んだ。この間、朝鮮は軍需物資、食料調達、人員確保の要地であり続けたのです。


Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Misunderstanding of war 1 : the Sino-Japanese War 1

豊島沖海戦,the first naval battle of the First Sino-Japanese War

 < the first naval battle of the First Sino-Japanese War >

The Misunderstanding of war has some types. Some people imagine that a war automatically starts, will be expanded rapidly and will go to the worst state.

During war, many people are in a nightmare with heat, and do not suspect the good behavior. It is the same even if it has finished.

The reason for taking up the Sino-Japanese War(189495) is that Japan achieved continent advance first by this war.

After this, the neighboring countries are meeting with a misfortune for long time.

For many people of both countries, the recognition of history has big distance.

This will stir up regret to one side and an uncomprehension of another side will extend the wound further.





坂の上の雲,  drama, novel ,Saka no Ue no Kumo

 < a dramatization of a novel Saka no Ue no Kumo” >

From the Ryotaro Shiba "clouds on a hill" which is a famous historical novel,

In a novel  Saka no Ue no Kumo” written by SHIBA Ryotaro who is a leading Japanese historical novelist, there is a sentence which touched the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War. I summarize it.

A staff officer's kawakami is a perfect Prussiaist, and the staff headquarters continuously pulled Japan. This idea has determined the relation between the nation and the staff headquarters of army until the end of the Pacific War. “The Sino-Japanese War is not an unavoidable defensive war, but is a war of aggression clearly, and was already prepared in Japan.”  People often said it, but Prime minister Ito did not have such idea. However, the staff officer's kawakami was clearly such.
On the Prussiais, one principle was that one side attack an enemy suddenly.”

The author has pointed out a reckless run of the army from the Sino-Japanese War to the Pacific War. Those days, the Japanese Army yearned for the vigor of Prussia (Germany) that was sweeping across the central Europe.





How is the German China historian looking? From “History of China civilizationbook written by Dr. Eberhard in 1980.

Although the Sino-Japanese War broke out over the head of Korea in 1894, this was a result of the problems which have existed vaguely by the imperialistic policy of Japan since 1881. Although China founded the Beiyang Fleet, this was considered to be only preparation of China for war expected long.”

The initiative of Japan is described also here.

ドイツの中国史学者はどう見ているのだろうか。エーバーハルト著「中国文明史」1980年刊 より。



戦争の日本近現代史, book,Japanese modern history of war

< a book “Japanese modern history of war” >

I summarize and quote from a book “Japanese modern history of war” book written by a Japanese historian Youko Katou in 2002. This shows the progress situation of the Sino-Japanese War.

1  The military budget was already being steadily acquired noticing that protection of the profits line was a way to independent self-defense.

2  The previous year of the outbreak of war, this editorial appeared in a newspaper. "it is required to take the policy Japan colonizes Japanese people in Korea rather than makes Korea a tributary. Then, this peninsula can be used as an outer wall of a castle for 100 years or more.” Maintaining the appearance of independent of Korea also includes the intention that avoids interference of a strong country.

3  The thing required for the next was an excuse to exterminate Qing. “Unless responsibility attains to me, since you can use what kind of means, you have to make the excuse of the outbreak of war.” Foreign Minister Mutsu ordered the legation it.

4  In March 1994, a farmer army will rise in quest of reform in Korea. It spread all over the country in May, and the dynasty requested dispatch of the army from Qing. 

5  Although Foreign Minister Mutsu will propose "the JapanQing internal-affairs reform proposal about Korea" to Qing in June 94, but Qing refuses this. "the internal war was already suppressed. Korea should perform reform by itself.” The reason was appropriate. Japan sends a letter breaking off the relation to Qing immediately, and promotes military conflict. In July Japan attacked the Korean king's palace and did a naval battle, and declared the war in August.

6  In July 1994, a newspaper was sympathized with the Japanese Government. “For Eastern peace, Japan advised by thinking that it is necessary to make Korea into the perfect independent country. However, in contrast, Qing considered that Korea is a dependency and interfered.  Therefore Japan should open war.”


1 利益線の守護が独立自衛への道だとして軍事予算は既に着実に獲得されつつあった。

2 開戦の1年前、新聞にこの論説が載る。「日本は朝鮮を属国とするのではなく、日本人を朝鮮に植民する方策をとることが必要である。そうすれば、この半島を百年以上、城の外壁として使える。」これには独立の体裁を保つことにより列強の干渉を避ける意図も含まれている。

3 次ぎに必要なのは清を駆除する口実でした。「私に責任が及ばない限りは如何なる手段を使っても、開戦の口実を作るべし」と陸奥外相は公使館に命じた。

4 94年3月、朝鮮では農民軍が改革を求めて蜂起した。5月には全州が占領され、王朝は清に軍の派遣を要請した。

5 94年6月、陸奥は清国に「朝鮮に関する日清内政改革提案」を出しますが、清国はこれを拒絶します。その理由は「内乱はすでに鎮圧された。朝鮮の改革は朝鮮みずからおこなうべきである。」とまともなものでした。待ってましたとばかり日本は清国に絶交書を送り、軍事衝突を推し進めます。日本は7月朝鮮王宮攻撃、沖海戦、8月宣戦布告となった。

6 94年7月、ある新聞は陸奥に同調している。「日本は東洋の平和のために、朝鮮を完全な独立国とする必要があると考え、勧告をおこなった。しかし清国はこれに反して、朝鮮を属国と見なし、干渉をおこなった、よって開戦すべきである。」

People desire the outbreak of war wanted to have considered the Korean to be an outside castle and to make it a colony. Therefore, they wanted defeating Qing. Furthermore, the political party and the newspaper also desired the hegemonism. When the war started, many volunteer soldiers were formed in Japan. And people were pleased with victorious celebration all together. In this way, it pushed on to war.

Next time I look at the sadness of occupied Korea.