Sunday, December 28, 2014

Traveling to Spain and Portugal 33: Astonishing Basilica de la Sagrada Familia and Barcelona, October 13

Basilica de la Sagrada Familia

< 1. ??? >
Today, I introduce Basilica de la Sagrada Familia and Barcelona.
Barcelona was the first visit place of our trip.
I was shocked by architect Gaudi’s thought and idea concerning the church.


 Cityscape of Barcelona 

< 2.  Cityscape of Barcelona >
< 2. バルセロナの街並み >
Upper two photos:  Views of the Mediterranean Sea and Basilica de la Sagrada Familia from Montjuic.
Left lower photo:  There is a balcony in the building without exception, and the wall surface is decorated beautifully, and the cityscape is orderly and beautiful.
It stood out everywhere that a flag was hanging on a balcony in hope of Catalonia independence.
Right lower photo:  The decoration of a building in the right side of Basilica de la Sagrada Familia is beautiful.

2枚の写真: モンジュイックの丘から地中海と聖家族教会を臨む。
左下の写真: 建物には例外なくバルコニーがあり、壁面は美しく飾られ、街並みは整然とし美しい。

右下の写真: 聖家族教会の右の建物の装飾が美しい。

Palau de la Musica Catalana. It is a masterpiece of Modernismo.

< 3.  Palau de la Musica Catalana. It is a masterpiece of Modernismo. >
< 3. カタルーニャ音楽堂、モデルニスモの代表作 >

This building that was completed in 1908 is a world heritage with a masterpiece of Domenech.
It was decorated by the mosaic tile and the sculpture of the floral design, and I feel Islam style in it.


Fetal activity of Barcelona
Modernismo was the art style similar to art nouveau of France, and was prevalent centering around Balcelona in the early 20th century from the end of the 19th century.
In 1898, Spain lost in war with America, and therefore a cultural movement (self-government movement) for the mother country reproduction by the intellectual gained steam.
On the other hand, in Barcelona of the early 20th century, the industrialization developed and it was prosperous.
Artists aimed at the ecdysis from the industrial standardization, in the theme of nature, and created the novel style that assimilated Islam style of Medieval Spain.
This advocate was Domenech mentioned above and Gaudi, and Picasso, Miro and Dali who participated actively at later spent youth in this Barcelona.


Basilica de la Sagrada Familia, The Nativity facade

< 4.  Basilica de la Sagrada Familia, The Nativity facade >
< 4. 聖家族教会、生誕のファサード >

The building of this church began in 1882, and Gaudi had charge of the construction from the next year to 1926 of his death.
All construction costs are served by a personal donation and it is under construction at present, and it is scheduled to complete in 2026.


The Nativity facade, it is a theme of Jesus’ birth

 < 5. The Nativity facade, it is a theme of Jesus’ birth >
 < 5. 生誕のファサード:イエスの生誕がテーマ >
Upper photo: The upper part of the facade.
Central photo:  We can see the coronation of Virgin Mary in the top right corner, and the annunciation in the lower.
Lower photo: In upper part of the entrance, Six angels play a musical instrument.

All these sculpture have movement and three-dimensional form, and a lot of the ornament is used without a gap.
These exceed all facades’ sculptures of various churches of Iberia that I had looked at until now.
However, I thought it was slightly excessively, and have begun to doubt the innovativeness of Gaudi.

上の写真: ファサード上部。
中央の写真: 右上に聖母マリアの戴冠、その下に受胎告知が見える。
下の写真: 入口の直ぐ上で、6人の天使が楽器を演奏している。


Inside the church

< 6.  Inside the church >
< 6. 教会内部 >

However, when I went in the church by one step, my chest became hot, and a tear fell.
In it, there was an aspect that I did not look at until now.
First, light was overflowing.
It isn't the bright light or the golden light, and a beam of light illuminating silent darkness.
It made me feel as if man was held in God’s bosom by warm light surely.


The ceiling looked up

< 7.  The ceiling looked up >
< 7. 見上げた天井 >

Furthermore, I admired the technical idea of Gaudi.
It was that the pillar such as the tree branching off had supported the ceiling.
First, I felt fear the ceiling fall with broken pillar.
If using ferroconcrete technology of those days, he shouldn't have to do such adventure.


The Chapel 

< 8.  The Chapel >
< 8. 礼拝堂 >

The handling of Jesus’ image was novel, but I felt fresh brightness and warmth.


Passion Facade.

< 9.  Passion Facade. >
< 9. 受難のファサード: イエスの受難がテーマ >
It is just opposite to the Nativity facade.
Thus we began to visit this church at 16:00 and finished it at 16:50.



I looked back on the sightseeing of Spain and Portugal, and I tried to understand the idea of Gaudi.
The church of the Middle Ages started in dusky room, and it progressed to gilded gorgeous decoration, and it utilized the light of the stained glass before long.
However, Gaudi thought that a chapel in that the believers pray and Mass is performed has to be a place wrapped in warm light.
In addition, he thought that the room has to overflow with life and trees.
He created the new church as a pious believer.

On the other hand, after all, there was the culture of Iberia in the undercurrent.
For example, it relates back to the pillar like a palm tree of Monsteiro dos Jeronimos (Lisbon).
It is also the vivid mosaic tile of Park Guell and Palau de la Musica Catalana.
Excess decoration was seen much in church’s facade of Portugal and Spain.

Islam and Christianity fuses, and alternate current through the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic created the various and flexible culture.





Friday, December 26, 2014

Traveling to Spain and Portugal 32: Segovia is known for aqueduct, Spain, October 23

スペインとポルトガルを巡る旅 32: 水道橋で知られたセゴビア、スペイン、10月23日


Aqueduct. Photographing at 8:00 

< 1.  Aqueduct. Photographing at 8:00 >
< 1. 水道橋、8:00撮影 >

Today, I introduce the last sightseeing area, Segovia famous for aqueduct and the castle of Snow White.

< 2.  We had arrived to Segovia on the previous day 
< 2. 前日、セゴビアに到着 >
Upper photo:  We go in Segovia after 10 minutes. Photographing at 17:55.
Lower photo:  A view of the old city from our hotel. Photographing at 18:35.
上の写真: 後10分ほどでセゴビアに入る。17:55撮影。
下の写真: ホテルから旧市街を臨む。18:35撮影。

Map: A red line shows our sightseeing route.

< 3.  Map: A red line shows our sightseeing route.
< 3. 地図:赤線が観光ルート >

The upper part of the map is the north.
The number of the map shows the photo number and the photography spot, and is in order of the photography.
We started from a yellow circle at 7:55, went uphill and traversed the old city by foot, went downhill, and then arrived at blue circle, and we finished the sightseeing at 9:40.  
At this time, there was not sightseeing of admission, too. 


About Segovia

From time immemorial, this hill was being ruled by Celt, Roman, the Goths and Muslim.
After Christian had forced Muslim out of this area, and this hill became a castle city of Castile in the 13th century.
This area was a route of transhumance, and the woolen industry developed, therefore this area soon entered the golden age.
By a law for the protection of sheepherder of this time, Spanish people were not able to own cultivated land for centuries.
In the 16th century, Segovia was destroyed thoroughly by the revolt that Segovia participated for obtaining the autonomy of the city together with 15 cities.
However, they accomplished the rebuilding.

This fortress city at 1000 m above sea level is on high hill whose surrounding was hollowed by two rivers, and is 90 m high from the rivers to the top.
Therefore, the aqueduct was necessary to supply it with water from the upper reaches.



aqueduct and plaza 

< 4.  aqueduct and plaza >
< 4. 水道橋と広場 >
1:  plaza having an aqueduct.
2:  The highest place of the aqueduct is 29m high in this plaza.
3:  The aqueduct connects with the top of the castle wall surrounding the old city.
4:  Once, the aqueduct had supplied water from distant mountain of 15 km behind.

The aqueduct was made by Roman in about the 1st century B.C., and was destroyed by Muslim in the 11th century.
We are seeing the thing reconstructed in the 15th century.

1: 水道橋のある広場。
2: 水道橋の一番高い所はこの広場で29mある。
3: 水道橋は旧市街を囲む城壁に繋がっている。
4: かつて水道橋は遠方の山手、15km先から水を供給していた。


< 5.  A street proceeding to Cathedral >
< 5. カテドラルに向かう通り >
6:  We leave the plaza and went up about 20 meters high to Plaza Mayor.
7:  As I look down at the south side, I can see an Iglesia (church) of Romanesque style in the twelfth century.
8,9:   The design of the outer wall is beautiful. Influence of Islam is seen.

6: 広場を後にして、マヨール広場まで20m程上っていく。
7: 南側を見下ろすと、12世紀のロマネスク様式の教会が見える。
8、9: 外壁の模様が美しい。イスラムの影響が見られる。

Iglesia de San Martin and street

< 6.  Iglesia de San Martin and street >
< 6. サン・マルティン教会と通り >
10:  Iglesia de San Martin of Romanesque style.
12:  The bell tower of cathedral came in view.

10: ロマネスク様式のサン・マルティン教会。
12: カテドラルの鐘楼が見えてきた。


< 7. Cathedral >
< 7. カテドラル >
This is Spanish last build of Gothic style, began to be built in the 16th century and completed 240 years later.
It is called "A lady of cathedral" from the elegant form.


Plaza Mayor and a street market 

< 8.  Plaza Mayor and a street market >
< 8. マヨール広場と露天市 >

The market was opening in Plaza Mayor in front of the cathedral.
It had aimed to not tourist but citizens.
I looked for books in a secondhand bookstore, but there unfortunately was not the thing that I wanted.


< 9.  Alcazar >
< 9. アルカサル >
The castle became the model of "the castle of Snow White" of Disney.
It was made in the eleventh century on fortress remains of the Roman era, and became the form like the present in the 15th century, but it was restored after a big fire.
This castle was built on the cliff of 60 m in height that was sandwiched by two rivers.


Iglesia and Alcazar

< 10.  Iglesia and Alcazar >
< 10. 教会とアルカサル >
18:  A church of Romanesque style in the twelfth century.
21:  Iglesia de la Vera Cruz of an unusual dodecagon.
When I looked down, the small church was seen in the wasteland of the north side.
The Knights Templars (defend Jerusalem) built it in the 13th century, and the crucifixion cross of Christ is preserved.

22:  we went down steep stairs along the cliff from the Alcazar, and we photographed from an open space.

18: 12世紀のロマネスク様式の教会。
21: 珍しい12角形のラ・ベラ・クルス教会。

22: アルカサルから崖に沿って急な階段を降りた広場から撮影した。

 I say good-bye to Segovia and Iberian, “Sayounara!  Adios!  Adeus!”

< 11.  I say good-bye to Segovia and Iberian, “Sayounara!  Adios!  Adeus!”
< 11. セゴビアとイベリアに別れを告げて、さようなら! アディオス! >
I finish the last sightseeing and, in the afternoon of this day, return home from an airport of Madrid.
I am blessed with beautiful weather in spite of rainy season and am parting with the sun and the town of the Middle Ages now.

From the next time, I write down Barcelona and Antoni GaudiSagrada Familia, the Prado Museum of Art Madrid,  and shopping information.



Thursday, December 25, 2014

Traveling to Spain and Portugal 31: Avila city of a castle wall, Spain, October 22

スペインとポルトガルを巡る旅 31: 城壁の町アビラ、スペイン、10月22日

A sightseeing place and Avila of fortress

< 1. A sightseeing place and Avila of fortress >
< 1.展望台と城砦都市アビラ >

Today, I introduce Avila famous for rigid castle wall.

Avila came into view 

< 2.  Avila came into view >
< 2.アビラが見えてきた >
Upper photo:  Our bus had run through the plateau from Salamanca, and our bus began to climb additionally.
Central photo:  A tower of Cathedral in Avila came into view on the right end.
Lower photo:  A full view of the castle wall of Avila.

About Avila

This was a city that was made by the Roman Empire in ancient times, and is the capital of a province now.
It is really cold in winter because that it is on higher plateau of 1131 m above sea level.
It is located in about 100 km from Salamanca in direct distance, and in about 90 km from Madrid in direct distance by traversing mountain range with south and east.
This castle wall is in a good state of preservation, and became the world heritage.

上の写真: サラマンカから高原地帯を走って来たが、更にバスは上り始めた。
中央の写真: 右端にアビラの大聖堂の塔が見えてきた。
下の写真: アビラの城壁の全景。


the old city and the castle wall 

< 3.  the old city and the castle wall >
< 3. 旧市街と城壁 >
Upper photo:  A cathedral is seen in the center of inside of the castle wall.
Central photo:  The castle wall began to be built when people recaptured this town from Muslim in the 11th century, and was completed after 9 years.
The castle wall has 2.5km in total length, 12m in height, width approximately 3m, 88 towers and parapetwall.

上の写真: 城壁内の中央にカテドラルが見える。
中央の写真: この城壁は、イスラム教徒から町を奪還した11世紀末から9年をかけて建設された。

Gate de San Vicente

< 4.  Gate de San Vicente >
< 4. サン・ビセンテ門 >
It is a representative gate as appearing heavy.
Seeing the structure, I understood they had aimed at inexpugnableness for providing for the attack of the Muslim.

Lower two photos:  I took a picture from inside the castle.


下の2枚の写真: 城壁内から撮ったもの。

< 5.  A panorama photo of outside the castle from Gate de San Vicente >
< 5.サン・ビセンテ門から城外のパノラマ(180度の視界) >


< 6.  Town 
< 6. 街並み >
Upper photo:  I looked down at a new town in mid-course of going up to the castle gate neighborhood.
The fortress (old city) is on the flat hill of 20-30m in height.

Central photo:  Church de San Vicente is in front of Gate de San Vicente.
Avila is known as the place in where Teresa of Avila who performed convent reform was born and raised.

Lower photo:  When I entered Gate de San Vicente, I saw soon the town street.
Cathedral along with the castle wall is seen in the back of the right side photo.


This sightseeing was only photograph time at two spots (the castle gate and the sightseeing place) without tour guides.
Its time was 40 minutes from 16:40 including busing and restroom break.
Still, I passed through a castle gate, could observe inside and outside of the castle wall and was satisfied due partly to be fine weather.

上の写真: 城門近くまで登る途中で、新市街を見下ろした。

中央の写真: サン・ビセンテ門の前にあるサン・ビセンテ教会。

下の写真: サン・ビセンテ門を入った直ぐの街並み。


Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Traveling to Spain and Portugal 30: Salamanca being a city of university, Spain, October 22

スペインとポルトガルを巡る旅 30: 大学の町サラマンカ、スペイン、1022

A view of a church from Casa de las Conchas

< 1.  A view of a church from Casa de las Conchas
< 1. 貝の家の中庭から教会の塔が見える >

Today, I introduce Salamanca famous for a university.

We are arriving to Salamanca

< 2.  We are arriving to Salamanca >
< 2. サラマンカに到着 >
Upper photo:  When we traverse the distant mountain range, we will reach Madrid.
Central photo:  We can see a tower of cathedral in Salamanca on the left.
This river faces the old city of Salamanca, traverses Porto, and then flows to the Atlantic Ocean.

Lower photo:  We go in Salamanca. 

We left from our hotel of Porto at 7:45, and arrived a restaurant of Salamanca at 12:45.
We ate paella as lunch.
The recipe of the paella was different from Japan, but it was delicious.

上の写真: 遠方の山並みを越えるとマドリッドに至る。
中央の写真: 左端にサラマンカのカテドラルの塔が見える。

下の写真: いよいよサラマンカの市街に入っていく。


Map: A red line shows our sightseeing route of the old city 

< 3.  Map: A red line shows our sightseeing route of the old city >
< 3. 地図:旧市街の観光ルート(赤線) >
The upper part of the map is the north.
The number of the map shows the photo number and the photography spot, and is in order of the photography.
We started at a yellow circle at 14:00, and did sightseeing by foot about one hour, and came back to the original position.   


About Salamanca

This city was built by ancient Roman and prospered as a trading hub of "Silver Route" (it linked Seville and Camino de Santiago to the north and south).
In the early thirteenth century, the oldest university in Spain was founded here, and this city has developed as the 3rd oldest university town in Europe.
In the Age of Discovery, astronomy was studied for the navigation at here, and Columbus learned, too.
On the other hand, it became the ideological fortress of Counter-Reformation.

We can see buildings of various style, Islamic, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, and baroque in this city.
In addition, because the many buildings that used a lot of reddish stones shone with sunset, it was called a golden city once.



Plaza Mayor 

< 4.  Plaza Mayor >
< 4. マヨール広場 >
1,2:   Plaza Mayor of Spanish baroque style in the 18th century.
This style that was born in Salamanca was also used for the central altar in the cathedral of Santiago.

1,2: スペイン・バロック様式のマヨール広場(18世紀)。

 A church and Casa de las Conchas

< 5.  A church and Casa de las Conchas >
< 5. 貝の家と教会 >
5:  A street between the church and Casa de las Conchas. 
6:  Casa de las Conchas of Gothic style in the late 15th century.
It was a personal residence of monk group (for fighting against pagan) for protecting Santiago pilgrimage.

9:  A church facing Casa de las Conchas.

5: 貝の家と教会の間の通り。
6: ゴシック様式の貝の家(15世紀後半)。

9: 貝の家と向き合っている教会。

Patio of Casa de las Conchas 

< 6.  Patio of Casa de las Conchas >
< 6. 貝の家の中庭 >
A well is seen in the center.

 Universidad de Salmnca

< 7.  Universidad de Salmnca >
< 7. サラマンカ大学 >
10:  The western facade of the university came into view.
11:  A full view of the western facade.
This is Spanish Early Renaissance style of the 16th century, and Hostal dos Reis Católicos (the royal hospital) of Santiago is same style.
A relief engraving of Reyes Católicos(Catholic Monarchs) is seen under the center.

12:  There is a frog on one skull (the left side) of the western facade.
This means lust being a Christian bad crime, and there has been a saying that " Person that have found it, doesn't fail the examination."

13:  Enlarged view of the western facade center.

10: 大学の西側ファサードが見えて来た。
11: 西側ファサードの全景。

12: 西側ファサードの一つのドクロ(左側)の上にカエルが乗っている。

13: 西側ファサード中央の拡大。


< 8.  Cathedral >
< 8. カテドラル >
14:  The tower of Cathedral. It is romanesque style in the 12-13th century.
15:  " Door of the pardon " of Cathedral. It is baroque style in the 15-18th century.
16:  Enlarged view of " Door of the pardon ".  It shows one scene of Jesus Christ's birth.

14: 新カテドラルの塔。12~13世紀のロマネスク様式。
15: 新カテドラルの「許しの扉」。15~18世紀のバロック様式。
16: 「許しの扉」の拡大。イエス生誕の場面。

The north side of Cathedral

< 9.  The north side of Cathedral >
< 9. カテドラルの北側 >

On the next time, I introduce Avilla of a fortress city.