Friday, September 28, 2012

Birth of primitive art 3: Development of statue

A Venus statue 、reindeer horn, in Nebra, Germany 、ビーナス像

< A Venus statue made from a reindeer horn, in Nebra, Germany

Last time, we looked at the female statue and the Venus statue that were made from 35000 years ago to 15000 years ago.

We looked at the first situation that human beings hold an image in their mind and manufactures it as a statue that can be taken in hand.

This time, we look at a diversification of the female statue and some statues except a female type.

The upper Venus statue is introduced last time. A Gonnersdorf ruins are located 300 km away from the ruins that this Venus statue was found in the same Germany.

Here, one group was living in some tent on the flat ground along the Rhine only wintertime at about 15000 years ago.

In this ruins, the researcher unearthed many clay stone into which the woman image is carved by drawing line. It just resembled the touch of the Addaura Cave painting, "Birth of primitive art 2 ".

The picture was the side view that abbreviated the head and a leg. and it expressed the hand, the breast and the buttock by two outlines.

The Venus statues discovered here was completely the same as the upper Venus statue.








ゲナスドルフ、ビーナス像、Venus 、upper Paleolithic 、 Eurasian、18000~13000 years ago

< The Venus image on the latter half of Upper Paleolithic in Eurasian Continent (about 1800013000 years ago)by「縄文時代のはじまり」小林謙一 >


These are the Venus statues at last stage of the glacial epoch. These Venus statues of side view type were distributed among about 2400 km from west France to the east Ukraine.

Although it is a simple form altogether, there is individuality, respectively. A diversity of Aesthetic sense and symbolization has already arisen here. It is a culture.

The clay figure of fig.7 (Siberia) in upper figure resembles the oldest clay figure of Japan.



花輪台、土偶、Clay figure, Ibaraki Prefecture, 8000 years ago

< Clay figure, Ibaraki Prefecture, 8000 years ago,  5 cm in height >

動産美術、movable statues  、lion man 、horse

< Typical movable statues >

Much movable statues expect the Venus statues were also made at the glacial epoch.

Those many were the horses and bisons of hunting animals. Others were the mammoth, the lion, the bird, and the goat.

In an old thing, in a cave of southwest Germany, a horse statue was made from ivory at 35000 years ago. Fig.1 (6 cm in length)

As a unique thing, in a cave of south Germany, a lion man statue was made from ivory at 32000 years ago. Fig.2 (30 cm in height) This is the personified oldest thing and we associates it with the sphinx of Egypt. The people soon will make a god statue that fulfills their dreams.

At 20000 years ago in France, an atlatl was made of a reindeer bone. Fig.3 (25 cm in length)
The atlatl is a tool that doubled the driving distance of the spear.

Probably, a simple expressive will and a desire of prayer arise first. The esthetic pattern was established soon. Subsequently, it became a status symbol. I can guess from the sketch of the clay stone discovered at the Gonnersdorf ruins.


how to use of an atlatl 

From next time, we will look at the cave painting of glacial epoch in Europe.






Thursday, September 27, 2012

Introduce the west side of Kyushu

In September, last year, I traveled Kumamoto, Saga, and Nagasaki in Kyushu.
It generally was fine and I was able to enjoy a wonderful landscape and a history.


阿蘇山, Mt. Aso , volcano, Kyushu, kumamoto,  somma

< The central plateau in Mt. Aso volcano 

九州, 地図, map, trabel
 < map、 The traveled place  

The somma of the volcano has 20 km in diameter, and there are many villages and farms in that inner side.


熊本城, 天守閣, castle tower ,  Kumamoto Castle,  kyusyu
< The castle tower of Kumamoto Castle 
The castle tower with remarkable black is one of the representatives of the castle in Japan.
The feature of the castle in Japan is made of wood and clay on the foundation of high stonewalls.
The white wall mixes clay with burnt lime.
This castle was made about 400 years ago, but it was destroyed by fire and it was rebuilt.


feudal lord’s room,  palace ,本丸御殿, 殿様, 部屋,  Kumamoto Castle 
< a feudal lord’s room in the palace  : 本丸御殿の殿様用の部屋 >
The just rebuilt palace (convention place) was large.


普賢岳, Mt. Fugen volcano, Sea of Ariake volcano

< Mt. Fugen volcano :  普賢岳 >

Mt. Fugen that is visible from the ferry of the Sea of Ariake has marks of lava flow which a major volcanic eruption made.


長崎, 中華街,  Chinatown Nagasaki
< Chinatown in Nagasaki  : 長崎中華街 >
Period of national isolation, Nagasaki was only one place that can be traded with the Netherlands.
Japan was continuously trading with China and South Korea.
The new knowledge and the new culture flowed into Japan from here in those days.
This is one of the factors that made Japan go to the Meiji Restoration.


< a specialty dish of Nagasaki 

佐世保, 夜明け, dawning ,daybreak, first light, morning
朝焼け, 佐世保, 夜明け, dawning ,daybreak, first light, morning daylight

< dawning >
The dawning view from the hotel of the summit from which we looked down at the Sasebo bay is indescribably beautiful.


島影 九十九島 sightseeing   islands   Sasebo bay

< sightseeing of the islands in the Sasebo bay >

平戸, kyusyu, Xavier commemoration church hirado
< Hirado >
A Buddhist temple is located on the right-hand side of the stairs that gone up to the Xavier commemoration church on a hill.
The trade with Europe began from this ground, and propagation of Christianity (Catholic) also started.
Then, we went to the Saga castle.
I could know Kyushu of the Edo period by seeing Nagasaki of a trading port, Hirado, Kumamoto Castle and the Saga castle.
Seeing the Mt. Aso volcano, Mt. Fugen and the Sea of  Ariake, I understand that the west side of Kyushu consists of a volcano and a complicated overseas line.
I could enjoy local fish dishes using freshly caught seafood in a shopping street in Sasebo.


Tuesday, September 25, 2012

New fables of Aesop 2: a hairy caterpillar and a green caterpillar

青虫、green caterpillar
hairy caterpillar 、毛虫

< a hairy caterpillar and a green caterpillar >

Once upon a time, the green caterpillar ate herbal leaves and lived in the prairie at the foot of a mountain.

It became butterflies soon, someone moved to the big trees by the side of a mountain, and ate the leaf.

Although the leaf of trees was hard, there were abundantly foods.

From grass someone said. "Why does it eat hard leaves?"

Someone replied from trees. "Since it became narrow there, we refrained from there."

The birds that got to know that many caterpillars lived came flying in great numbers.

However, the birds concentrate in trees and began to eat.

It is because birds were not able to stop at soft grass.

Then, the persons of trees are clothed in a poisonous prickle on the body, and were prevented from eating it.

In this way, they became hairy caterpillars in trees.











One day, the children of the village came for play there.

" These caterpillar become a beautiful butterfly. It is pleasure. "

“There are hairy caterpillars. Since they have poisonous, I will step and crush them."

Voice has been heard from the grassy place. "The hairy caterpillars are pitiful, they did these best in order to survive."





 bird 、picks food 、餌をついばむ、鳥

The example that ought to become hairy caterpillars is looked at by many histories of a race.

It seems that, when the race that continued being invaded from the circumference, their grudge and self-consciousness become strong.

Jews continued being invaded and segregated from the neighboring country or other races during about 3500.

The same might be said of the Korean Peninsula and Vietnam.

Both countries continued receiving invasion of a major nation for 2000 years.

Thailand and Switzerland are in the opposite poles, may resemble a green caterpillar.

Both countries have protected by the mountain range from the major nation.

朝鮮半島、防戦、defensive battle、Korean Peninsula

< The defensive battle of the Korean Peninsula >

We need to refrain from judging the high and the low only by racial appearance.









Monday, September 24, 2012

New fables of Aesop 1: A monkey and a wild boar

猪,a wild boar

The fables of Aesop are made in ancient Greece.
There were the precepts for living with humor.
If present Japan is compared to the animal world, how does it become?

実りの秋,Autumn of a crop

<  Autumn of a crop  >
One group of monkey lives in “a monkey mountain” and the number family's wild boar lived in “a wild boar mountain”.
Since it visited early this autumn, two mountains were little harvest of potatoes and nuts.
The hunger was imminent.
One day, a boss of the monkey gathered everybody and said like this.
“  Everybody, don't take and eat freely food. Timely, we gather a required thing among ourselves and divide a harvest. We must keep it in a cave for the future. “
At the time, the wild boar's eyes were become all bloodshot and they diligently had begun harvest competition for their family.
“ A wild boar family on the right took the red fruit of the valley.  Another on the left dug the good potato in the dip. We also climb a mountain early and have to gather some harvest. Let us go at once. “
Each family of the wild boar early has eaten enough.
In this way, they finished the preparation in winter.



However, it was unusually severe cold in the winter of this year.
When a late spring came, the miserable result was waited.
From a wild boar mountain, exclamation of a battle and the miserable voice were heard occasionally.
The sprout of trees and potatoes were perfectly eaten up in a wild boar mountain
The harvest of autumn from summer never came to the mountain.
Even the strength wild boar could not be survived.
He could not prevent numerous invaders.
The monkeys were able to prevent the worst situation, distributing few foods somehow.


イースター島,Easter Island , Collapse of civilization 

< Easter Island  : Collapse of civilization >
Does man take absurd action like the wild boar?  In fact, it is repeated historically.
The difference of the maximum both strategies were a joint control and an assignment.
If the limited resources is placed under the joint control and made long-term preservation, they will be never wasted.
Almost Crops have a difference by each place. World economic efficiency goes up by exchanging these crops.
Probably a part of underground resources and foods will begin to be exhausted in tens of after years.
At that time, in the area where is not jointly managed and made assignment organization, the peoples will make war or starve.
For that purpose, what should you do?
It is carrying on trade widely and deepening interdependence irrespective of a self-sufficiency rate.
Then, the quantity of production of food also increases markedly.
For example, if 100% of a self-sufficiency rate is applied for every village, the inefficiency is clear.


< A monkey and a wild boar >
However, things are not so easy.
There are the ingrained grudge and the historical circumstances between the race and the state.
Moreover, the gap of economy or culture prevents the joint consciousness.
Probably, we need the half-century for canceling it at least.
Immediately, we need to advance exchange and an understanding.
Fortunately, Europe is under trial and error now.
Japan can refer to this case.
The previously described relations of interdependence may deter a war start.
Conversely, it can be said that World War II broke out when this faded suddenly.
We cannot bypass this.
Your wisdom will save a family.



Friday, September 21, 2012

Recommended book: The Taming of the Samurai

英語本、front cover of the book、The Taming of the Samurai 

< front cover of the book >

The Japan names of this book are "honor and adaptation."

The subtitles of an English-language edition are " Honorific Individualism and the Making of Modern Japan."

An author is college professor Eiko Ikegami lives in the U.S.

She analyzes soul of Japan from 1000 years of the samurai society.

It begins from the single combat in ancient times.

Next, revenge, hara-kiri, insurgence, the Chusingura of Loyal Retainers in the Edo period, and it continues to nationalists of the Meiji Restoration.

The author says that the success of the Meiji Restoration is based on the samurai soul of Edo Period.

In this opinion, "honor" is born from violent competition of the samurai started at 1000 years ago, and it was affected by the influence of a next societal change.

An author presupposes that "the samurai's honor" induced a motivation and a social order.









 忠臣蔵、Chusingura 、 Loyal Retainers

< the Chusingura of Loyal Retainers : 忠臣蔵 >

I summarize this book simply.

1 In order to obtain the reliance from a Master, the samurai is proud of bravery.
 And he must do so that a master does not doubt his loyalty. It was the "honor" which serves as reputation from the environment.

2 This developed the revenge, a single combat and hara-kiri that endures shame.

3            The battle shifted to the collective strategy from the individual, the war finished and the government institution of the Edo period was established. In line with that, the honor changed.

4 The violence by honor confused society and it was pressed down. On the other hand, the honor of the bureaucrat supporting the government was required.

5 This inconsistency made the soul of the samurai intellectual was refractive and sublimate.

6 A samurai loves a master intently, moreover he does not fear death, and he thinks that the self-control is important.

7  The samurai should render loyalty to the country and not a master. If a samurai is required, he desperately admonishes and schemes also for a master shift.

8        In this way, the samurai came to think his ideal is important. This is an Honorific Individualism.

9        At the time of the Meiji Restoration, organization was easily changed. People who implement the politics were all samurai.  

10     Traditionally, although this was low regarded as the incomplete people's revolution, it was not so.

葉隠、 warrior、 death、  Hagakure

< “the way of the warrior is death”  Hagakure               > 

Probably, this book comprehensively explains the soul of Japan.


1 武士は主君からの信頼を得る為に、武勇を誇り、忠誠を疑われないようにしなければならなかった。それが周囲から評判となる「名誉」であった。

2 このことが報復、一騎打ち、恥を凌ぐ切腹を発展させた。

3  戦闘が個人から集団の戦略に移行し、戦乱が終わり、江戸時代の官僚機構が定着すると、名誉に変化が生じた。

4  名誉による暴力は社会を混乱させたので押さえられた。一方で幕藩体制を支える官僚の名誉は必要であった。

5 この矛盾は武士知識人の心に屈折と昇華を生みだした。

6        武士は一途に主君を愛し、死をも恐れない、また克己を重視する。「葉隠れ」

7        武士は君主にでなく国に忠誠を尽くすべきである. 必要なら命懸けで諫言し、君主交代をも画策する。

8 こうして武士は自分の理想を重視するようになった。これは一つの名誉個人主義である。

9 明治維新の時に、体制はあっさりと切り替えられた。その政治を担った人々は総べて武士だった。

11 従来、このことは未完の市民革命と低く見られていたが、そうではなかった。

< 「武士道とは死ぬことと見つけたり」 葉隠 >



Thursday, September 20, 2012

Which side is the ancient state in Japan? 日本の古代国家はどちら側ですか?

ancient state in Japan、map、日本地図、古代初期国家、遺跡、位置

< 日本地図:古代初期国家と遺跡の位置 >






 view of ruins 、kaito iseki、垣内遺跡、全景

< 垣内遺跡全景 >







遺跡で作られた鉄器、hardware、made iron

< 遺跡で作られた鉄器 >