Sunday, March 31, 2013

Dwelling like fort of amazement ; Fujian Tulou(clay tower) in China



Appearance of typical Tulou 


 Appearance of typical Tulou 

We asked the strange building in south China.

The clayey buildings have been inscribed in 2008 by UNESCO as World Heritage Site.


私達は中国南方にある奇妙な建物を尋ねることにしました。

この建築群は2008年に世界遺産に認定されました。



Red point shows Fujian Tulou. It is in Fujian of southeastern China.


 Red point shows Fujian Tulou. It is in Fujian of southeastern China. 

Early October 2004, my friend of Xiamen guided us around it.

We got in the friend's new car and left the street in Xiamen, and passed through pastoral land or country towns at high speed.

Before long, we went into the mountain slope that enclosed with many terraced fields, and went up the winding bumpy road.

4 hour had Already passed, as the altitude became near 1000 m, our car stopped at last.

For the first time, we saw the Tulou below one's eyes from the mountain path.


200410月初旬、厦門の友人が私達を案内してくれた。

友人の新車に乗り込み、厦門の市街を出発し、田園地帯や田舎町をぶっ飛ばし、やがて段々畑の山間部に入り、曲がりくねったガタガタ道を上って行きました。

4時間経って、標高は千m近くなり、車はやっと止まりました。

その峠から眼下に初めて土楼が見えました。



Tianluokeng Tulou cluster, The square Buyunlou at the center


< Tianluokeng Tulou cluster, The square Buyunlou at the center

On a deep place between mountains, the building cluster were standing quietly, and white smoke had risen from it.

We descended the steep slope that was full of the crop of autumn.

Nostalgic smell and atmosphere that bring back old memories had been drifting at there.


深い山間に、ひっそりたたずむ建物があり、白い煙が立ち上っています。

秋の実りが一杯の急斜面を歩いて下りました。

昔懐かしい臭いと雰囲気が漂っていました。




Inner portion of Buyunlou. It rebuilt in about 60 years ago after a fire


 Inner portion of Buyunlou. It rebuilt in about 60 years ago after a fire.

It is three stories high, has about 80 rooms, and a go around corridor in front of the rooms at each level.

This resident were all Huang (yellow) family.

People just were just cooking and washing in a courtyard, and had kept some hens and ducks.

People were preparing a marriage ceremony busily.



この建物は3階建で、総部屋数が80ぐらい、各部屋の前に環状の廊下がある。

この住人は総べて「黄」一族である。

中庭で料理や洗濯をし、鶏や鴨なども飼っている。

皆で結婚式の準備をしていた。


persons were making the sweets of the marriage ceremony


 persons were making the sweets of the marriage ceremony. >

I got the white rice cake and ate it. It wasn't used sweeteners entirely.


その真っ白な餅を一つ貰って食べましたが、甘味料などは使われていませんでした。



sun-dried


 sun-dried 

Outside the building, various crops of autumn had being dried in the sun.

Probably, their life was self-sufficiency since they were isolated from the circumference.


建物の外では色々な秋の実りが強い日差しの中で日干しにされていました。

ここは周囲から孤立しているので、暮らしは自給自足なのだろう。



The situation of a life


 The situation of a life 

One man was boiling up the sausage in the courtyard.

Each room was very small in the same size, and filled with a bed and traditional cooking stoves, respectively.

They are equal, share thing with resident, and are living together cohesively.

Their consciousness has begun from the time of birth of this building.



中庭で、腸詰めを煮立てています。

各々の部屋は同じ大きさで非常に小さく、それぞれベッド一つ、竈一式で一杯になってしまいます。

彼らは対等であり、共用し、団結して暮らしているのです。

この意識はこの建物の誕生時から始まりました。


The scheme of Tulou


土楼の成り立ち


  
 other Tulou 


< other Tulou >

Tulou exceeding 20,000 are scattered on the valley of mountainous area in Fujian.

The feature of the structure is that clay wall(about 2m in thickness)  covered the outer circumference, and small entrance of a door that was reinforced with iron plate is only one.

And top story of the building has gun holes for defensive purposes.

These began to be built from around the 12th century.

Those days, the armed bandits were raging.

Then, a family built a fort on the mountain for protected from the enemy in cooperation.


In this way, there was the warmth of the communal society that had completely lost in the city in here.



2万を越える土楼が、福建省の山岳部の谷間に散在している。

その構造の特徴は、約2mの厚い土壁が外周を覆い、鉄板で補強された扉の入口が一つだと言うことです。

またその建物の最上階には敵を迎え撃つ狭間が設けられている。

12世紀頃から造られ始めた。

当時、武装した盗賊団が荒れ狂っていた。

そこで一族が敵から護る為に団結し山に砦を作った。


こうして、都会ではまったく廃れた共同社会の暖かみがここにはあったのでした。


















Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Birth of primitive art 11 : primitive arts of American continent



stone colossal head, 176cm in height, Mexico, about 3200 years ago


< map No.2, stonecolossal head, 176cm in height, Mexico, about 3200 years ago >

This time, it is last to introduce primitive arts over the world.

I take a brief look at the oldest fine arts in American continent and the beginning of Inca and Mayan civilization.


今回で、世界各地の原初美術を紹介する最後となります。

南北アメリカの最古の美術からマヤ・インカ文明の始まりまでを概観します。



American continent

 < American continent, area of the oldest fine arts are red 1, 4.  area of ancient civilization are yellow. No. 2 shows Mayan and Aztec. No.3. shows Inca. 

Human beings advance into American continent at first time by way of Alaska about 15000 years ago.
They arrived at the southernmost end of South America after thousands years.

Therefore, the footprint of the human beings in this continent will become comparatively new.



人類はアラスカ経由で15000年前頃にアメリカに初めて進入し、南米南端に到達するには更に数千年を要しました。

したがってこの大陸での人類の足跡は比較的新しいものになります。



Toquepala cave ruin, about 9500 years ago, Peru

 < map No.4, Toquepala cave ruin, about 9500 years ago, Peru

The oldest rock art in American continent is the mural painting in this cave.

This cave is in the middle of the Andes, and the altitude of 2700 m.

The picture shows a situation of hunting that some people drive the animals like camel into a fence.

The picture was drawn with pigment of red, yellow, green, black, and white.


アメリカ最古のロックアートは、この洞窟の壁画です。

この洞窟はアンデス山脈の中腹、標高2700mにあります。

絵には、集団でラクダ科の動物を柵に追い込む狩りの様子が描かれている。

この写真は不鮮明ですが、赤、黄、緑、黒、白などの顔料で描かれています。


the Andes can be seen in the distance

 < the Andes can be seen in the distance. >

There is large plateau in the middle of the mountain range of the Andes at a level of 4000 meters.

First farming started in there after that, and Inca civilization was born.

Machu Picchu that is often called the city in the sky is slightly 200km from Toquepala cave. It is altitude of 2430 m.


4000mの山々が連なるアンデス山脈の中程に高原があり、後にそこで最初の農耕が開始されインカ文明が生まれることになります。

空中都市マチュ・ピチュ(標高2430m)はトケパラ洞窟からわずか200kmの所にあります。


, human figure and lizard, Coso rock art, Eastern California, from 10000 to 1000 years ago,

 <  Map No.1, human figure and lizard, Coso rock art, Eastern California, from 10000 to 1000 years ago, by Bradshaw foundation  >

Rock arts in this area are close to 100,000.

The representational figures consist of animals such as bighorn sheep, and animal-human conflations.  They are drawn by sculpture.


この地域には10万近い岩絵があります。

その代表的な図像はオオツノヒツジ等の動物と動物と人間が合成されたものです。シンボル化された人物像が彫刻によって描かれています。


bards and deer, Baja California

< Map No.1, bards and deer, Baja California, by Bradshaw foundation 

Rock arts of this area began to be drawn from about 7000 years ago, and the person and the animal were drawn.


この地域の岩絵は、古くは7000年前頃のもので、人物と動物が描かれている。


 
the above rock art was drawn on this rock shadow, Baja California,

< Map No.1, the above rock art was drawn on this rock shadow, Baja California, by Bradshaw foundation 

Many of rock arts in North America are in mountain range, and it are many dried places now.

Hunter-gatherers drew them.


北米アメリカの岩絵の多くは山岳部で、現在は乾燥化している所も多い。

これらはすべて狩猟採集民が描いたのだろう。



The dawn of ancient civilization

before longas a settled agriculture started in the central part of American continent and the central Andes, new fine arts was born.

A stone carving of infographic topping is representative art of Olmeca civilization that was first born in the central part of American continent.

Although earthenware, the clay figure, and the jade figure also were made in there, colossal head in stone is unique.

This stone colossal head was set up religious service center ruins including a pyramid.

Probably, it was a monument in which influence of a person of power was shown.

Then, it developed into Mayan and Aztec civilization.



古代文明の曙

やがてアメリカ大陸の中部と中央アンデスで定住農耕が始まると、新たな美術が誕生し始めます。

巻頭写真は中部アメリカ(メキシコ)の最初の文明、オルメカ文明の代表的な石彫です。

土器や土偶、翡翠製人物像も作られたが、巨大人頭像がユニークである。

この巨石人頭像はピラミッドを含む祭祀センター遺構内に据えられており、権力者の威光を示す記念碑だったのだろう。

この後、マヤ、アステカ文明へと変遷していくことになる。

human figure and human head, 3m in high, Cerro Sechin, about 3800 years ago, Peru

 < Map No.3, human figure and human head, 3m in high, Cerro Sechin, about 3800 years ago, Peru

This ruin is one of the ruins that became a forerunner of the Inca civilization in the central Andes.

These images were engraved by lines on slates that surround the foundation of the shrine made from brick.

Although earthenware, the clay figures also were made in there, much later, gold work became very famous.

In this way, primitive fine arts in American continent developed into the fine arts of civilization.

From next time, we will look at the mystery and meaning of primitive fine arts birth that we have seen until now.



この遺跡は中央アンデスに興るインカ文明の先駆けになる遺跡の一つです。

これは煉瓦製神殿の基壇部を囲む石板に線刻された図像です。

土器、土偶も作られますが、かなり後に金細工が一世風靡することになります。


こうしてアメリカ大陸でも原初美術から文明の美術へと変遷を遂げて行きました。

次回から、今まで見てきた原初美術誕生の謎とその意味を読み解いて行きます。















Saturday, March 23, 2013

Birth of primitive art 10 : primitive arts of East Asia


 flame-like earthenware, Niigata Prefecture, japan, About 5000 years ago

< flame-like earthenware, Niigata Prefecture, japan, About 5000 years ago >

This time, we look at primitive fine arts of Japan and China.

The characteristic fine arts will teach us the life of the primitive.


今回は、日本と中国の原初美術を見ます。

その特色ある美術から原初の暮らしが見えて来ます。


left, The oldest clay figure, about 6cm in height, Ibaraki Prefecture, about 8000 years ago. right, a clay figure is called ” Venus” , Nagano Prefecture, 27cm in height, about 5000 years ago.














< left, The oldest clay figure, about 6cm in height, Ibaraki Prefecture, about 8000 years ago. right, a clay figure is called ” Venus” , Nagano Prefecture, 27cm in height, about 5000 years ago. >

The world’s first earthenware was made in Japanese Islands at 12000 years ago.

In those days the people settled in a place while they were hunting, gathering and fishing, because blessings of nature were rich.

It enabled manufacture of the earthenware and the clay figures.

The clay figures had continued to be made for about 8000 years, and it was over as wet-rice farming was popular.

Above-mentioned the oldest clay figure resembles the Venus image of about 15000 years ago in Siberia. ( refer to “Birth of primitive art 3”)

In the last half of this epoch, the characteristics of woman became to be inconspicuous from the clay figures.

And decoration and deformation became to be conspicuous.

Then realistic animal clay figures also became to be made.

Although the excavated clay figures totaled about 15000, these have damaged almost.

Perhaps, people broke them intentionally for the purpose of the prayer.


日本列島では12000前頃から世界で最初に土器が作られた。

当時、狩猟採集漁労生活ではあったが、山野の恵みが豊なことにより定住を行っていた。

このことが土器や土偶の製作を可能にし、土偶は約8000年間作られ続け、水稲栽培が普及すると終焉を迎えた。

上述の最古の土偶は約15000年前のシベリア出土のビーナス像に似ている。(原初美術の誕生3:動産美術の展開に詳しい)

しかし縄文時代後半になると土偶の人物像は女性の特徴が目立たなくなり、装飾や強いデフォルメが目立つようになる。また写実的な動物像も作られるようになる。

その出土総数は15000体ほどあるが、大半が破損しており、祈祷目的で故意に壊したものらしい。


big eyes clay figure, Aomori Prefecture, about 3000~2300 years ago 

< big eyes clay figure, Aomori Prefecture, about 30002300 years ago >

This is one of clay figures in the last half of this epoch. Its eyes are emphasized.


これは後半の土偶の一つであるが、目が強調されている。


the oldest kinds of earthenware 

< the oldest kinds of earthenware >

Although earthenware was made for cooking, before long, its ornament became to be important.

A flame-like earthenware of infographic topping had appeared suddenly, and disappeared after about 1000 years.

This is considered to be a thing for not daily necessities but religious service.




土器は煮炊き用に製作されたが、やがて装飾が重視されるようなった。

巻頭写真の火焔土器は突如として出現し、千年ほどで消えた。

これは実用品ではなく祭祀用のものと考えられる。


The feature of these fine arts


In primitive fine arts of Japan, there are neither realistic drawing nor life scenes almost.

Of course, there is neither cave mural paintings nor big lock arts.

Probably, the reason depends to a large extent on the settled life and hunting small animals and gathering nuts.

The clay figures and earthenware that was made of clay were in close contact with their lives.

While every locations interplay, these fine arts grew on the whole in Japan islands. Those days, a royal power did not exist.



この美術の特徴

日本では、写実的な描画や生活場面が描かれることはなかった。

もちろん洞窟壁画も大きなロックアートもない。

その理由は、小動物と木の実、遡上する魚などに依存する狩猟採集と定住生活が大きく影響したのでしょう。

材料がすべて粘土である土偶や土器は、生活と共にあった。

各地が交流しながら、この美術は列島全体で発展していった。当時、王権は存在していなかった。


What place was Japanese Island that developed these?


The places where typical clay figures and earthenware were made are Nagano Prefecture and Niigata Prefecture, and there are at the center of the Japanese Islands.



これらを育んだ日本列島はどのような所だったのか。

代表的な土偶や土器が作られた場所は長野県や新潟県で、日本列島の中心にある。


a clay figure of ” Venus” was excavated on this plateau area. Nagano Prefecture 

a clay figure of ” Venus” was excavated on this plateau area. Nagano Prefecture >

People in those days also lived on the vast brush or the foot of the mountains.


当時の人々も、この変わらぬ山野で暮らした。


a reproduction of house in those days 

< a reproduction of house in those days >

People in those days lived in this like thatched hut by one family.

One village consisted of from some families to hundreds of persons.


当時の人々は、家族単位で、この草葺き小屋に住み、数家族以上、最大は数百名が暮らす村もあった。



Primitive fine arts of China.

Chinese earthenware was made at the same time as wet rice culture started 10,000 years ago.

A little late, the female clay figure was also made.




中国の原初美術

中国の土器は水稲栽培が1万年前に始まったのと同時に作られ始め、少し遅れて女性の土偶も作られた。


left, earthenware was pictured with fish images, about 7000 years ago, middle reach of the Hwang.  Right, a figure of jade, about 8.6 cm in high, lower reach of Chang Jiang, about 5500 years ago

< left, earthenware was pictured with fish images, about 7000 years ago, middle reach of the Hwang.  Right, a figure of jade, about 8.6 cm in high, lower reach of Chang Jiang, about 5500 years ago 

The surface of this earthenware was pictured with fish images, hoping to be plentiful.

This figure is burial goods and was sewn to religious leader clothing.

After that, in China, products of jade and the bronze ware that began from the second 
millennium B.C., became the gorgeous mainstream of fine arts

Thus, in East Asia, primitive arts that are a different from other areas was born.


Next time, we look at the fine arts in American continent.



これら彩陶の表面には多産の祈りを込めて魚が多く描かれた。

この人物像は副葬品で、宗教的指導者の衣類に縫いつけられていたらしい。

この後、中国では玉製品と紀元前2千年期に始まる青銅器が美術の華やかな主流になっていく。

このようにして東アジアでは、他地域とは少し異なる原初美術が生まれた。


次回はアメリカ大陸の美術を見ます。






Tuesday, March 19, 2013

a seasonal tradition of Awaji-Island, in Japan :  spring has come with Launce fishing!


Left side is boiled fishes like nail. Right side is boiled up with only water, is called “ Kama-age”.




< Left side is boiled fishes like nail. Right side is boiled up with only water, is called “ Kama-age”.

Plum tree bloomed, and Lance fishing has started.

Since the fishing would finish, the flowers would fall before long.

The fishing port is prosperous during about this one month, and " kugi-ni “ (boiled fishes like nail) is made at each home.


梅の花が咲き、イカナゴ漁が始まり、終わると花もやがて散る。

この1ヶ月間ほど、漁港は賑わい、各家庭では「くぎ煮」が作られる。

The kugi-ni are made by boiling the fry of lance together with a lot of soy sauce and sugar.

these length are from 3 cm to 7.

Alcohol and ginger are added it, and if it continues boiling until moisture flies completely, it will become amber with gloss.

It tastes very good, when I eat " kugi-ni" together the boiled rice.

The Kama-age is used to add with other dishes.


くぎ煮はイカナゴの稚魚、体長3~7cmを大量の醤油と砂糖で煮て作られる。

お酒と生姜が加えられ、水気が完全に飛ぶまで煮続けると、照りのある飴色になる。

これをご飯に載せて食べると実にうまい。

釜揚げは他の料理に和えて使う。


Early morning, a fishing boat came back.

< Early morning, a fishing boat came back. >

Lance fishing is two fishing boats pull a big net and sail on the sea.

And another boat brings back the catches until the harbor in a hurry.


イカナゴ漁は2隻の漁船が大きな網を引き、海を駆けめぐる。

そして別の1隻がその収穫物を港に急いで持ち帰る。


A ship arrived at the shore and Lance is unloaded from it.

< A ship arrived at the shore and Lance is unloaded from it. 

Landing persons cooperates with fishermen and Lance were moved to many containers by them.

Landing persons are women and daughters although fishermen are man and son.

This fishery consist that some family and many people cooperate.


船の漁師と埠頭の荷揚げ者が協力して、いくつものコンテナにイカナゴを移す。

漁師達は男や息子であるが、荷揚げ者は婦人や娘達である。家族、皆が協力しての漁である。


disposing Lance 

< disposing Lance >

Auction will start soon.

< Auction will start soon. >

Some brokers are moving to a front ship from over there.

One broker appraises by putting his hand inside a container of Lance.

The auction will start soon.

The ship that finished landing immediately departs again.


奥の船で競りが終わった仲買人達は手前の船に移動して来る。

一人の仲買人がイカナゴのコンテナに手を入れ、品定めをする。

やがて競りが始まる。

荷揚げを終えた船は、またすぐ出港する。


sea gulls gathering around 

< sea gulls gathering around >

Sea gulls are gathering gradually to target the fish that fall at landing.


荷揚げでこぼれる魚を狙って、カモメが徐々に集まってくる。


a heron is seeing the harbor.

< a heron is seeing the harbor. >


 plum blossoms

< plum blossoms  >

This flower will also fall soon.

Spring has already come.


もうすぐこの花も散ることになる。

もう春が来た。