Monday, July 21, 2014

Summer in Awaji Island : A festival and fireworks of the strait park 


Today, I introduce the summer festival that was held by Awaji city July 20.
This main is some events and fireworks that are performed in the lawn open space of Akashi Kaikyo National Government Park.
Moreover, many stalls were set up, and entering the park is free today.
Blessed with weather, many people came from the island outside.


stalls and a stage in the lawn open space

< 2.  stalls and a stage in the lawn open space    

There are eateries that are provided by the professional in these stalls, but stalls that were provided by the local volunteer are amusing.
The performance and the dances were carried out on the stage.


a eatery by children 

< 3.  a eatery by children 

The faces selling with a smile were shining in sunlight.

children absorbed in play

< 4.  children absorbed in play >

Akashi Kaikyo National Government Park

< 5.  a central part of the park >
The scene that was reproduced the forest, the hill, and the valley naturally is the merit of this park.
The trees of the season blossom in various spots.
However, the flower of the park is few at this time.


Akashi Kaikyo National Government Park

< 6.  Upper: the park south side.  Lower: the park north side. >
There is a very large lawn open space in the end of the park north side, and we watch the fireworks in this side.





The flowers in the park


 10.  fireworks
I took pictures of fireworks for the first time and it was difficult.

I was comfortable, because it was a little cloudy.
After the photography of the park, I was sitting down vaguely at a bench for three hours until the fireworks start.
I had been bringing back the past along with seeing the behavior of families, lovers, and friends.



Thursday, July 10, 2014

Go around the world of Buddha statues 20:  The mystery hidden in Buddha statue

Left: the Great Buddha of Nara. Right: Buddha statue of Mathura 

< 1. Left: the Great Buddha of Nara. Right: Buddha statue of Mathura >

The mystery is a certain image expression that Buddha statue had already possessed at the occasion of this birth.
It is continuously inherited to the Japanese Buddha statue also.

This time, I pursue the origin moreover.

Halo and Abhaya Mudrā
Thing being common in both the Buddha statues of Fig. 1 is expression the form of seated posture, Abhaya Mudrā, and a halo.
From the start of Buddha statue birth in Gandhara, these three expression forms had emerged in the relief engraving that all kinds of life of Buddha was depicted with.
The seated posture derives from yoga (seated concentration).
This seated posture had already appeared in the Indus civilization before Aryan migrated, so its culture was peculiar to India.
The halo or the aureola is something like a disk or a ring attaching to the back of Buddha statues, and symbolizes emission of the light.
The Abhaya Mudrā is usually made with the right hand raised to shoulder height, the arm bent and the palm facing outward with the fingers upright.
In Buddhism, this kind of expression means that Buddha gets rid of fear and uneasiness from people.
However, the India culture before it did not have these two expression forms.



 left: a cylinder seal in Mesopotamia in about the 23rd century B.C.  right: Code of Hammurabi in the 18th century B.C.

< 2.  left: a cylinder seal in Mesopotamia in about the 23rd century B.C.  right: Code of Hammurabi in the 18thcentury B.C.
How was the halo born?
"Sun god Shamash radiates rays from the shoulder and appears with the figure that holds a thing like a saw in the hand".
This is a passage in the myth of Assyria Babylonia.
Shamash in Mesopotamia's God controls justice or four seasons and influences the outcome of war.
Figure 2 show Shamash God both.
In right fig., the God is conferring Code of Hammurab to the king.
We can see each shoulder emits some rays.


Mithra God

< 3.  Mithra God
Left fig.:  Mithra on the right is meeting Syria king Antiochus 1, at the first century B.C. in Mt. Nemrut of Turkey.
Right fig.:  Mithra on the left sanctifies the investiture of Sassanid emperor Ardashir, at the 3rd century in Taq Bostan(neighboring ruins of Bisotun) of Iran.
From heads of both Mithra, emission rays spread in a circle.
Mithra was a sun god that was shared by the earliest Aryan (Indo-Iranian), and described in Hindu scripture of India, and Zoroastrian Scripture of Iran.
This Mithra spread to Rome at the end of the first century A.D., and the iconography expression took root in the empire.

左図: 右のミトラ神がシリア王アンティオコス1世と会見。前1世紀、
右図: 左端のミトラ神がササン朝ペルシャの初代王を叙任する。3世紀、ベヒストゥンの近郊、Taq Bostan in Iran.

How was the Abhaya Mudrā born?

a form of the ancient oath

< 4.  a form of the ancient oath >

Left fig.:  The Behistun Inscription of Darius 1 who administers an oath to the chief deity of Zoroastrianism in the air, at about the 5th century B.C. in Bisotun of Iran.
Right fig.:  A noble female statue of fortified city Hatra. Hatra in Iraq were an important trading city of Parthia kingdom that nomad of Iran created after the first century B.C.

Forms of such an oath are seen in relief engravings of Assyria and Persia well.
Hammurabi of Fig. 2 also raises his right hand and takes an oath to God.

左図: ダレイオス1世のベヒストゥン碑文、王が天空のゾロアスターの最高神に宣誓している。前5世紀頃、Bisotun in Iran.
右図: 要塞都市ハトラの高貴な女性像、ハトラはイランの遊牧民が興したパルティア王国の重要な交易都市だった。前1世紀以降、イラク。



Halo and Abhaya Mudrā were the Mesopotamia origin both.
The halo seemed to symbolize the sun having overwhelming power.
This started in Mesopotamia God, was inherited by Mithra being the oldest god of Indo-Iranian, and was adopted to Indian Buddha statue
Originally, Abhaya Mudrā was a form that a king administered an oath to God.
This was inherited by Parthia kingdom from Mesopotamia, and was assimilated as the form that Buddha promised for the people in India.


this map shows some ruins and main kingdoms

< 5.  this map shows some ruins and main kingdoms >

Pink frame: a domain of Achaemenid Empire Persia (the 6th - 4th century B.C.).
Brown frame: a domain of Parthia kingdom (the 3rd century B.C. - the 3rd century A.D.).
Dark blue frame: a domain of Greco Bactria kingdom (the 3rd - the first century B.C.).

Indian Indus basin and Afghanistan was a place that India culture, nomad’s culture of Central Asia, and west culture of Iran or Greece mixed between the second millennium B.C. and the first millennium A.D.
This significantly influenced Buddha statue birth of India .

ピンク枠: アケメネス朝ペルシャ(前6~前4世紀)の領域。
茶色枠: パルティア王国(前3世紀~後3世紀)の領域。
紺色枠: グレコ・バクトリア王国(前3世紀~前1世紀)の領域。


Subsequent deployment

The halo was not the form that was adopted in Buddha statue of India only.
Probably, in the prairie or the desert area, it was a symbol common to human beings.


symbols of sun 

< 6.  symbols of sun >

Fig. 1:  Re of Egypt being sun god puts the sun on the head.
Fig. 2:  A gold coin of Ptolemy 3rd in the 3rd century B.C. in Egypt. Emission rays come out from the king’s head.
Fig. 3:  Halo of Apollo God, the 2nd century, Tunisia.
Fig. 4:  a picture of Islam. It is halo such as flame at the back of the saints.

This iconography that was expressed by solar beam, flame, and disk was used also for God and the Saint of Hinduism or Christianity.
The form of an oath that became the Abhaya Mudrā is remaining as a judiciary oath to raise the right hand now.

図1: エジプトの太陽神ラーは頭上に太陽を乗せている。
図2: プトレマイオス王3世の金貨、前3世紀、エジプト。王の頭から光りが出ている。
図3: アポロ神の光輪、2世紀、チュニジア。
図4: イスラム教の絵。聖人の背に炎のような光背。


Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Travel to Turkey 8: Caravansary

 main gate

< 1. main gate

I introduce the ruins of the caravansary today.


 central tower in the courtyard surrounded by a castle wall

< 2.  central tower in the courtyard surrounded by a castle wall 

The building is in SultanHan located between Konya and Cappadocia.
Such caravansary was built in Anatolia plentifully from about the tenth century.
The caravansary was built in the trade route every approximately 40km.
In those days, the merchants put all loads on horse or donkey, etc., formed a party, and traded between distant places.
In order to encourage trade and to protect the merchants’ party from robbers or thefts, the dynasty made the caravansary like fort and placed security force.
Furthermore, offering of a meal and taking care of the animals were performed to the sojourner for nothing.


Upper fig.: inside of main gate.  Lower fig.:  entrance of room.

< 3.  Upper fig.: inside of main gate.  Lower fig.:  entrance of room.>

a view from roof of the central tower

< 4.  a view from roof of the central tower 

The history of this trade route is even older.
The trade route via here linked the Central Asia from the Aegean Sea (close to Ephesus) about the third century B.C. and would have conveyed Hellenism culture.
Furthermore, King Darius of Persia built the highway that reached the Aegean Sea (close to Ephesus) from Iran (Susa) in the 5th century B.C. (this route are a little different from it).
This was able to travel through 2,700 km in seven days.


 a corridor of courtyard, and old farm implements  

< 5.  a corridor of courtyard, and old farm implements > 

I seem to hear the neigh of animals and the chat of suntanned merchants of ancient times.
The goods in trade from Rome and Greece might have arrived to China through here, and furthermore to Japan.


beautiful pattern, skillful skylight

< 6.  beautiful pattern, skillful skylight  >

frontal view 

< 7.  frontal view >

a souvenir shop

< 8.  a souvenir shop    >

mountains covered with snow, agriculture scenery in the dry field 

< 9.  mountains covered with snow, agriculture scenery in the dry field >

Unlike the ruins of a royal palace, although there was not a feeling of gorgeousness, I felt the breath of the merchants who got on in the world.
One pleasure of this trip was over.


Friday, July 4, 2014

The society and the information 33:  Information crosses the border 7


< 1.  Kremlin >

This time also, following the last time, I see how the Soviet Union reported the nuclear plant accident that happened in Ukraine.


 Gorbachev and Reagan

< 2.  Gorbachev and Reagan >

In 1985, Gorbachev advocated perestroika (reform), and was inaugurated as the supreme leader of the Soviet Union.
This was just a year before the nuclear plant accident.
He developed the following opinions about this nuclear plant accident at home and abroad and corresponded.


AThe atomic energy is the original sin of the human civilization, and the accident is the wrath of Heaven.
Taking this opportunity, he appealed for the menace of the nuclear weapon and stopping the nuclear test within the country, and then progressed the agreement of the nuclear weapon reduction between the United States.
It proceeded to the conclusion of the Cold War in 1989 year before long.
Probably, the nuclear plant accident was used for an excuse of stopping the arms race that had weakened the national power.

A 原子力は人類文明の原罪であり、事故は天罰である。

B.      The western media discharge falsehood reports, and are trying to trample us.
"Thousands of casualties appeared one after another, and all around became full of graves. The whole land of Ukraine was polluted by the radioactivity, and the capital became the wasteland where the trees and plants would not grow.”
He said that he demanded the confidence in the government to the people, because the west had been reporting such lie.
The people will be always exposed to such news that truth and falsity were mixed in, and were different at home and abroad.

B 西側メディアは虚偽報道を垂れ流し、我々を踏みにじろうとしている。

Outskirts city of the Chernobyl nuclear plant became ruins 

< 3.  Outskirts city of the Chernobyl nuclear plant became ruins >

C.  This accident is a maximum example of the bad effect of the old regime.
This accident brought the new government two help.
One thing made the accident liability the incompetence of the local administrative organ (Ukraine) of the Communist Party, and the bad effect of the central old regime.
This made the unskillful handling of the new administration less noticeable.
On the other hand, the government announced that the scientists of the Soviet Union had shut away the radioactivity of the accident and the measures were perfect.

C この事故は、旧体制の弊害の最たるものである。


< 4.  Shevardnadze >

The other was a good opportunity to infiltrate the information disclosure at home and abroad.
Shevardnadze that was appointed the foreign minister carried out already the information disclosure partly in Republic of Georgia and had shown the results.
The government showed the details of the accident and the damage, accepted the inspection of the American Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and promoted the nuclear power accident coverage taken by the domestic media organization.
The image of the new government that will sweep away the bad effect due to the secretiveness was able to spread at home and abroad.

In those days a chief editor of newspaper "Pravda" talked of complaint that the information disclosure had not really advanced toward.
This newspaper was continuing revealing a lack of a plan of the government about the accident against the governmental bureaucrat-ism and the secretiveness.



This big accident became the big favorable wind for the new Gorbachev Administration.
On the other hand, in Japan, the nuclear plant accident became a factor that condemned the new government for.


Wednesday, July 2, 2014

History of sickness and medical art 28:  China 3

 medical book “Huangdi Neijing”

1. medical bookHuangdi Neijing”

This time, I look at how people recognized the sickness in those days.


 Restored instruments of acupuncture in “Huangdi Neijing”

 2. Restored instruments of acupuncture in Huangdi Neijing” 

The oldest medical book “Huangdi Neijing”
This Chinese oldest medical book is written in the form that legendary Yellow Emperor discusses with a subject.
It was written in the first century B.C.
This form resembles the pattern that a legendary wizard had a dialogue with a king in " Caraka Sanhita" of India.
It consists of pathology, general remarks of physiology, and clinical medicine including diagnosis, treatment, acupuncture and moxibustion.

People are kept alive by life energy ( Qi ) of nature, and is controlled with the rule of four seasons”
From ancient times, in China (East Asia), people think people being harmonize with nature, and it becomes sickness when balance collapses.




this Classic Taoist Taijitu shows “Yin and Yang” 

< 3.  this Classic Taoist Taijitu shows “Yin and Yang” 

The fundamental theory is in Confucian doctrine” I Ching”.
It is said that people take birth with life energy ( Qi ) of “ Yin and Yang”, and people get sick if the harmony in the body was lost.
Furthermore, it was assumed that the human body is made of wood, fire, soil, gold, and water.
The basic elements of every phenomena and things were assigned to five.
There was 4 body fluid theory in Greece medicine, but there was 5 body fluid theory in China.
Moreover, people recognized that all blood was under rule of the heart, circulated through it continuously, and didn’t stop.


 Meridian of “Huangdi Neijing” 

< 4.   Meridianof “Huangdi Neijing” 

Moreover, there is the 12 principal meridians in body, and life energy ( Qi ) circulates through this course.
It presupposed that health can be maintained by keeping this circulation normal, and the sickness is treated by giving acupuncture and moxibustion.
Moreover, it presupposed the sickness was divided into two, one of it depended on external factor such as wind, chill, dryness, humidity, and other depended on inner factor of joy, pathos, anger, fear, etc.


 Zhang Zhongling 

< 5.  Zhang Zhongling >

The oldest clinical medical book “Shanghan Lun”
This book was written by Zhang Zhongling of good doctor at the end of the Han dynasty, and was a monument that told the birth of experience medicine.
He was called Hippocrates.
In a preface, he wrote his families had died in large quantities in a short term and 70 percent of it was “Shanghan”, and indicated the motive of writing the book.
He systematically explained the treatment of “Shanghan” from the onset of a disease to the death, and medical treatment was explained mainly by medicines only, but the etiology was not explained.