Saturday, October 31, 2015

Went around Croatia and Slovenia 9: Plitvice Lakes National Park 2

クロアチア・スロベニアを巡って 9: プリトヴィッツェ湖国立公園 2



Today, I introduce the last half of sightseeing in Plitvice Lakes National Park.


< 3.  Kozjak lake >
< 3. コジャック湖 >

We rode this boat and went from wharf P1 to P2 of this lake, then climbed a little till the upper lake.

< 4.  A first lake of the upper stream 1 >
< 4. 上流側の最初の湖 1 >

< 5.  A first lake of the upper stream 1 
< 5. 上流側の最初の湖 2  >
Upper photo:  The calcareous tufa attaches to those trees that died and sank, and new scenery will be created in this lake.
Lower photo:  What a tasteful color of the lake that stagnated.

上の写真: 朽ちて沈んだ木に石灰華が付着し、湖に新たな姿が生まれる。
下の写真: 淀んだ湖のなんと味わいのある色か。

< 6.  Luxuriant forest and water >
< 6.豊かな森と水 >

This is last introduction of Plitvice Lakes National Park.
The area that we saw the sights of is only the half of this park.
But three hours passed in no time.

This splendid park was once a part of the Military Frontier that I ever introduced in "Port town Senj".

This continues next time.




Friday, October 30, 2015

The society and the information 59: News media has fought 16

社会と情報 59: 戦った報道 16

< 1.  A village serviced a flesh trade in about 1930  >
< 1.1930年頃、村が身売りを斡旋。  >

From now on, we look at the economic background that newspapers changed in.
It is we confirm that people became to affirm a continent invasion due to some economic factor.


< 2.  A battle of the northern part of China in 1933  >
< 2.1933年、中国北部での熱河作戦。  >


Previously, at this serialization “News media has fought 11”, we know that the Japanese local reporter sympathized with ringleader Kanji Ishihara of the Manchurian Incident and had thought “ We need to take the northern part of China for the solution of Japanese population and food problem”.

In those days, people were under the situation that the economy and life grew worse and worse, and had faced an uncertain future.
Radical elements had advocated the continent invasion as the solution, and people came to agree it.

既に「戦った報道 11」で、当時、朝日の現地記者が満州事変の首謀者石原莞爾に共感しており、「日本の人口問題と食糧問題の解決には満蒙大陸が必要である」と考えていたことを見ました。


< 3.  The government expenditure of Japan >
< 3.財政支出の推移 >
Legend:  A, C, D and E of color frames indicate the following “ Main points”.
Other graphs are similar, too.
A thin broken line indicates  “government expenditure/GDP”, and a solid line does government expenditure.


Main points

I selected main economic problems that occurred from the 1900s to the 1930s.

Problem A: The government was not able to respond successfully to vast war expenditures that continue to increase from the 1890s.
Problem B: People came to promote discontent due to chronic rice deficit, a surplus population, an expanding disparity in wealth, and increasing in the awareness of entitlement of worker.
Problem C: In the late 1910s, big prosperity was brought on by World War I, but the reaction will deteriorate society and economy more.
Problem D: In the 1920s, Japanese economy suffered unprecedented aggravations that are the depression after World War I, the Great Kanto Earthquake, the banking crisis, the Great Depression.



Development E: In 1931, Japan caused the Manchurian Incident and got the northern part of China, and built up the Empire of Japan that contained Korean Peninsula and Taiwan.
Western great powers had stagnated all economy and trade due to the independence of their colonies after World War I, and the Great Depression.

Meanwhile, Japan increased the trade in Asia including China and first accomplished the economic recovery in the world.
Japan seemed to almost have evaded mentioned problem A, B, C, D.
As a result, in 1940, Japan conspicuously accomplished the economic growth and was near the United States and the U.K., and became the major economic power comparing with Germany.


< 4. Changes of each nations GDP, it used a GDP of 1929(the Great Depression ) as 100 >
< 4.GDPの推移、世界恐慌の1929年を100として指数化。 >

Japanese GDP (red line) suddenly increased from the Manchurian Incident, as disregarding Western great powers except the Soviet Union (orange line).


< 5. Change of world trade >
< 5. 世界貿易の推移 >
After the Great Depression, the world trade decreased in 1/3.

< 6. Changes of each colony trade >
< 6. 植民地貿易額の推移 >
Legend:  A yellow line is the colony trade amount of Japan.
After the Great Depression, each colony trade amount reduced to half in the U.K. (solid line), and remained unchanged in France (dashed line), but Japan increased than four times after the Manchurian Incident.


What is important?

Why did people concentrate their hopes on the continent invasion even with exchanging it for the dangerous war expansion?
Did the continent invasion rescue the people from the economic deterioration that they expected to?
I narrow down this difficult economic background to several points and easily confirm it.

On the next time, we look at "Problems that was caused by collecting funding for war" that is relatively unknown.



Thursday, October 29, 2015

I visited Guilin 7: Took a stroll through the streets of Guilin 3 

桂林を訪れました 7: 桂林町歩き 3

< 1. The street is near our hotel. A avenue of Lijiang is seen in the back. >
< 1.ホテルに近い通り。奥に漓江の並木道が見える >

Today, I introduce aspects of a morning in a back street that is near our hotel.
I looked at a side of the development of China.


< 2.  This street is a distance of one block from the avenue >
< 2. 並木道から一つ入った通り >

I took those pictures 7:00-7:30 in the morning of Friday, September 18.
Small restaurants and convenience stores had opened.
On the right-side end of the photo, about ten men sat around a table and were gambling.


< 3.  Aspects of going to work and to school >
< 3. 通勤・通学の表情 >

The people of Guilin city get up until late evening and take a light breakfast in the morning.
There is the custom that they go back home and take a rest and a meal at noon like Siesta of Spain.


< 4.  A market and food shop > 
< 4. 市場と食料品店 > 

When I saw this scene, I thought that this was China just the same.
It was dirty and was stinking!
It isn't different from aspect of markets of back streets in Guangzhou, Xian, and Amoy that I visited for 25 years.   
It is very different from the market of Balkan that I visited just two weeks ago.


< 5.  Buildings of the back street >
< 5. 裏通りの建物 >

Houses are like Buildings made of the brick heaping up as ever.
The apartments are very tall.
The paths become narrow suddenly, and bend sharply everywhere.
It is contrastive with orderly residences of the avenue.


< 6.  Various aspects >
< 6. 様々な光景 >

If 1 yuan is 20 yen, the room charge becomes 600 yen per a night.
A master of the fruit shop of a roadside was taciturn.

I had visited to China seventh times at this time, and this situation that stagnation is mixed with prosperity everywhere hadn’t changed after all.

This continues next time.




Sunday, October 25, 2015

Went around Croatia and Slovenia 8: Plitvice Lakes National Park 1

クロアチア・スロベニアを巡って 8: プリトヴィッツェ湖国立公園 1

< 1. The cascades of Milka Trnina 
< 1. ミルカ・トルニナ滝 >

Today, I introduce the beautiful scenery consisting of the lakes and cascades being main feature of this trip on 2 times.


< 2. Sightseeing map >
< 2. 観光地図 >

We saw the sights of the downstream that is a half of this park (the range of the map) on foot.
It was from 8:20 to 11:20 of September 1.
We started from the Entrance1 of the map, rode on a boat from P3 to P2, saw a little the sights of the upper streams, went to P1 by a boat, and finished our sightseeing at Entrance2. 
On the way, we sufficiently enjoyed a forest bathing, because there was a break time of the waiting for a departure of the boat in P3.

It was beautiful weather, and we began to walk.
After a period of time, I sweat a little in strong sunlight.
I wonder if it’s because of an early morning, there weren't many people, as a result, we were able to taste the nature leisurely.  



< 3.  The large waterfall of the Plitvica river on the right upper
< 3.右にプリトヴィッツェ滝 >

In the center of the photo, the waterfalls of Sastavci and wooden paths over those are seen.

Upper photo:  A view of Kaluderovac.
Central photo:  There are many trout in the transparent lake close to wooden paths.
Lower photo:  A view of the downstream from wooden paths over the waterfalls of Sastavci.

下の写真: サスタヴィッツィ滝を跨ぐ桟道から下流を見た。

< 5. A blue lake, white cascades, and dark green
< 5.青い湖水と白い滝、濃い緑が綾なす静寂 >

< 6.  A downward view from the entrance of a cave >
< 6. シュプリャナ洞窟の入口から下を望む >

There is a small limestone cave that can go through to the top in this big bedrock.

< 7. The cascades of Milka Trnina >
< 7. ミルカ・トルニナ滝 >

I think this is typical scenery of these lakes and cascades.


The whole of Dalmatia (the Adriatic coast) introduced later is almost covered with limestone like this park and Slovenia.
However, this scenery is greatly different from the scenery of Guilin in China.
The rainy quantity seems to bring the big difference of the scenery and agriculture in both areas.

This continues next time.




Friday, October 23, 2015

The society and the information 58: News media has fought 15

社会と情報 58: 戦った報道 15

< 1. An advertisement handbill in Meiji Period, military personnel was popular
< 1.明治時代の広告チラシ、軍人が人気 >

This time, I supplement with the last explanation about the social change that happened under a war regime.


< 2. Military policeman >
< 2. 憲兵 >

I divide the social change into two elements

People’s thought and feelings were changing unconsciously
One is a surge of national sentiments such as patriotism or a chain of hatred.
When people endured hardship in a battlefield or their relative died of wounds, they felt stronger resistance in being pointed out that going into battle is useless.
This was connected to strict defending of national interests.

People intensely criticized the coward attitude of the government toward the Triple Intervention that had to abandon a territory.

Furthermore, because they couldn’t abandon China that they obtained in exchange for a life of Japanese soldiers 290,000, and couldn’t withdraw from it, again enlarged the war.



Another is the spreading of the weapon use and military spirit.
I investigated the spread of guns in  "Our war 17-22" series before.
As a result, it was clear that the spread of guns caused the increase of the crime victim.
In other words, it changed to the society approved of violence, and settled troubles by violence.
This is clear at a glance if we see an action movie of Hollywood.
Similarly, if the martial spirit penetrates the whole society, the autocratic behaviors increase to many families such as Spartan discipline.

Thus, they would get used to the national interest, violence, and regulation.

以前、「私達の戦争 17~22」で銃の普及を検証しました。

< 3. Elementary school language Reader in 1936 >
< 3. 1936年の小学校国語読本 >

The government led the people for war regime reinforcement
First, war weariness had been prevalent for almost people, so the government praised military personnel and encouraged to become good military personnel.
In addition, they assumed a hypothetical enemy, incited fear, and encouraged battling spirit.
Every military power practiced this.
For this purpose, education, public information, and oppression (prohibition of criticism) were important.


If expressing the article before last in other words, it is summarized as follows.
*  A big menace near at hand.
* We should defend the national interests (territory) that we paid large sacrifice to obtain to.
* The near enemy is thing we should despise, and the repulse is easy.
This will be the most effective sentence that instigates the people.


< 4.  A local veterans' association >
< 4. 在郷軍人会の集合写真 >

On the other hand, it does not attract attention, but there is local veterans' association as the example which raised an effect steadily.
This association was organized by the reserve duty that was available for mobilization of wartime and reached 3 million people in the 1930s.
Japanese population at the time was approximately 60 million people.
At first, the purpose was an education training of military personnel, but this became the implementing group to uplift their fighting spirit by the military leadership later.
In each place, this played a major role by protest and the boycott to anti- authority newspapers (Asahi and Mainichi), and by the promotion of the emigration to Manchuria and Mongolia.
Japan learned this system from Germany.

Thus, people regarded the continent invasion as national interests and accepted a war and the government of national unity.
However, people cannot embark on war only in this.             

I think about the economic factor on the next time.




Thursday, October 22, 2015

I visited Guilin 6: Took a stroll through the streets of Guilin city 2

桂林を訪れました 6: 桂林町歩き 2

< 1. A morning of Lijiang, a view of upper stream from the bridge over a affluent
< 1.漓江の朝、支流に架かる橋から上流を望む >

Today, I introduce the sceneries of Lijiang and the circumstances of people’s living together with it.
In there, a strange world not being in Japan had spread out.


About photography

In the morning of September 16-17, I took a stroll along Lijiang near our hotel.
The range was from Jiefang bridge until a affluent that was a distance of 1200m along the left bank from it to the north.
I photographed these photos in from 6:30 to 7:00.


< 2.  Lijiang flows through the central part of Guilin city >
< 2.桂林中心部を流れる漓江 >
Upper photo:  Fuboshan maintain on the right and Jiefang bridge on the left back.
Center photo:  A view of upper stream from Jiefang brid.
Lower photo:  A view of upper stream from near the affluent.

上写真: 右手に伏波山、左に解放橋。
中央写真: 解放橋から上流を望む。
下写真: 支流辺りから上流を望む。

< 3.  Sunrise of Guilin city >
< 3.桂林の日の出 >
Upper photo:  A view of the mountains of Qixing park from Jiefang bridge.
Lower photo:  Fuboshan mountain glittered in the morning sun.

上写真: 解放橋から七星公園の山々を望む。
下写真: 伏波山。

< 4.  The street in front of our hotel >
< 4.ホテルの前の通りから >
Lower photo: When seeing the northeastern side from the bridge over the affluent, the new residential apartment buildings had been constructed at full blast.

下写真: 支流の橋から東北側を見ると、新しい住宅街が盛んに建設されていた。

< 5.  Person’s living together with the river >
< 5.漓江と共に暮らす >
When walking the riverside, I can well know how persons live with the river.
There are persons doing gymnastic exercises or jogging on the bank, person fishing on a raft in the central of the river, and person catching fishes or prawns by a net in the shallows.


< 6.  Persons enjoy the river >
< 6.川に親しむ人 >
Thing that is common among three photos is appearances of swimming person.
These persons were swimming along the flow of the river and occasionally gives a big shout.
It was warm morning, but it was cold for swimming.
There are person washing clothes and the person taking a bath.


These are scenes of weekday morning.
The lively downtown that I introduced last time is this opposite shore.
This city is energetic, but relaxed time flows, too.
There is modern place but also vulgar place.

This continues next time.



Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Went around Croatia and Slovenia 7: Slovenia is a long way off 2

クロアチア・スロベニアを巡って 7: 遥かなりスロベニア 後編

< 1. Capital city Ljubljana >
< 1.首都リュブリャナ >

Slovenia was a migration route of Syrian refugees.
This thing was involved in the birth of Slovenia.
We look at this country’s history roughly.


From ancient times, Balkan Peninsula was ...


< 2.  Migrations >
< 2. 民族移動 >
Upper map:  Human migrations.
Center map:  Great Barbarian Invasion.
Lower map:  Slav migrations.

上図: 新人類の移動。
中央の図: ゲルマン人の移動。
下図: スラブ人の移動。

Several tens of thousand years ago, when the new human left Africa and went into Europe, they passed through Balkan Peninsula.
In addition, the farming culture born in west Asia spread through Europe via this area.

In the 5thcentury, the Germanic peoples passed through the northern part of Balkan Peninsula, and ruined the Western Roman Empire.
Furthermore, in the 7th century, east-west Slav settled in Russia and Poland, and south Slav settled in Balkan Peninsula.



< 3.  Contour map and imperial ambits >
< 3. 地形図と帝国の勢力図 >
Two red ovals of the both maps indicate Slovenia.

Upper map: The very long Danube River that flowed through from the west to the east became main ethnic migration route, and also grew Austria and Hungary Empire.
On the other hand, because there are a large number of mountains in Balkan Peninsula, growing to a large country is difficult, and this area comes to suffer among some empires.


上図: 東西に流れる長大なドナウ川は民族の移動ルートとなり、またオーストリアとハンガリー帝国を育んだ。

Lower map:  Empires that affected Balkan Peninsula.
Influence A:  Since the 10th century, the Holy Roman Empire, and next, Austrian Empire in the same German-speaking sphere.
Influence B:  Since the 10th century, Hungarian Empire.
Influence C:  The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5thcentury, and since the 13th century, Venice ruled the ocean.
Influence D:  The Eastern Roman Empire collapsed in the 15thcentury, and Ottoman Empire replaced it.
Influence E:  Since the 17th century, Russia.

下図: バルカン半島に影響を与えた帝国を示す。
勢力A: 10世紀からドイツ語圏の神聖ローマ帝国、次いでオーストリア帝国
勢力B: 10世紀に興ったハンガリー帝国。
勢力C: 5世紀に西ローマ帝国が滅亡し、13世紀以降、海洋を支配したベネチア。
勢力D: 15世紀に東ローマ帝国が滅亡し、取って代わったオスマントルコ。
勢力E: 17世紀以降のロシア。

Slovenia built a small kingdom in an early stage, but was not able to gain independent from the influence A.
For Austrian (influence A), Slovenia was a pivot for advancing to the Mediterranean Sea and was a defense line next to Croatia for Ottoman (influence D).
On the other hand, Croatia opposed against Ottoman Empire and Venice (influence C) under the guardianship of Hungary (influence B).
Since the 16thcentury, Hungary was incorporated in Austria, and Croatia and Slovenia were unified together with Europe.

On the other hand, Serbia that would build the greatest kingdom as south Slav was placed under guardianship of the Eastern Rome Empire, and next, was ruled by Ottoman Empire.
As the result, the people became refugees and the different ethnic groups began to live by as mixed together in Balkan, and this became a factor to cause a racial problem later.

During this time, many religions were mixed together, too.
In Influence A, B and C, Christian Catholicism became important.
In Influence D, It was the Greek Orthodox Church of the Eastern Rome Empire early, but subsequently Islam became the mainstream by Ottoman Empire.

Balkan came to be called "a powder magazine in Europe" in this way.





< 4. Slovenian history >
< 4. スロベニアの歴史 >
Upper map:  Austria-Hungary Empire, 1880.
Center map:  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 1943-1992.
Lower map:  Current Republic of Slovenia.

上図: オーストリア・ハンガリー帝国、1880年。
中央の図: ユーゴスラビア社会主義連邦共和国、1943~1992年。
下図: 現在のスロベニア共和国。

The process of the birth of current Slovenia
In the 19th century, by an influence of Europe, ethnic consciousness was rising by the revival of language and literary arts in all places of Balkan.
In this time, the federation by south Slav was recalled for the first time, and a kingdom of Serbia, Croat, and Slovenia was born first in 1918.
After that, after a confusion of World War II, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was born by banding together much bigger.
However, when pivotal President Tito died, the federation was cracked due to mutual economic interests mainly.
In 1991, Slovenia declared independence first, and this federation collapsed after some civil wars for 10 years.

After all, Slovenia selected the way of independence as a south Slav of Austrian group, in a departure from south Slav of other cultural spheres, Croatia or Serbia.

Thus, in Balkan Peninsula, the passion of own ethnic for over 1000 years and the intense hatred for other ethnic swirled.

This continues next time.