Tuesday, April 30, 2013

A wonderful place, Okinawa 1 : A cape and a karst mountain



at Daisekirin mountain from Hedo cape


< I looked at Daisekirin mountain from Hedo cape. It is distant place left-hand side. >

I traveled through Okinawa and looked at main tourist resorts in early April.
Although it was overcast weather, my travel was very comfortable.
I will introduce the nature and sightseeing of main Okinawa island.

4月の始め、沖縄を縦断し、主要な観光地を見ました。
天気は曇りがちだったが、過ごしやすかった。
沖縄本島の自然と観光を紹介します。



a map is main Okinawa island.


< A red frame is main Okinawa island. A right frame is the enlargement. A black frame is roughly Okinawa prefecture region. A yellow frame is the place that I introduce this time.

An east-west width of Okinawa Prefecture is about 1000 km, and it consists of islands of 160.
The maximum distance in a straight line of main Okinawa island is 107 km.
It is a subtropical climate since it closes on Taiwan.
In ancient times, Okinawa was a maritime state.
Right now, it is a leisure island of the tropical and a lot of military base.
It is wonderful and mysterious.


沖縄県の広さは東西に約1000kmで、160の島からなります。
本島の最大直線距離は107kmで、台湾に近く亜熱帯気候です。
沖縄は、南国のレジャー島、古くは海洋国家、また基地の県でもあり、不思議な趣があります。


Hedo cape


Hedo cape


< Hedo cape

When I stood on the cape, I felt a little lonely like standing on the farthest edge.
The plants had covered barely the ground generated by coral reef.

岬は寂寥感の漂う最果ての感がありました。
珊瑚礁が隆起した大地をかろうじて植物が覆っていました。


Daisekirin mountain


Daisekirin mountain


banyan tree 


< Karst landscape, The strangely shaped rocks in Daisekirin mountain and banyan tree >

Here remains well a subtropical jungle even in the main Okinawa island, and it is called Yanbaru.
anyan tree and cycad had grew up among sharped limestone, it gave me an impressed of being the tropical zone.

ここは沖縄本島でも亜熱帯の自然がよく残っており、山原(ヤンバル)と呼ばれる。
尖った石灰岩の合間をぬってソテツ類やガジュマルが伸び熱帯を感じさせる。


the view of Hedo cape from the summit


The summit continued into the far distance.


< the view of Hedo cape from the summit.  The summit continued into the far distance. >

In a myth of Ryukyu, this mountain was a sacred spot that God came down first.
There were many Utaki of small shrine throughout the mountain, and it had been made by setting some stones.
Since this area is made of a huge base rock, it is unsuitable to grain cultivation. But the cultivation of pineapple etc. is performed.
The line of coral reef that has foamed up white waves was running in parallel to the seashore.

Truly, it was an island of the tropical, and it gave me the impression of ancient Ryukyu.

Next time, I look at nature of central part in the main Okinawa island.


この山は、琉球の開闢神話で、神が最初に降り立った聖地だとされる。
山のいたる所に石組みした小さな祠である御嶽(うたき)があった。
この地域は巨大な石灰岩や火成岩で出来ており、穀物栽培には不適だが、パイナップル等の栽培が行われている。
海岸に並行して白波が立つ珊瑚礁のリーフが走っていた。

まさに南海の島、いにしえの琉球を感じる一時でした。

次回は、本島中部の自然を紹介します。






















Friday, April 26, 2013

Birth of primitive art 16: What did precede the primitive art? Part2


The Himba woman in northern Namibia 


< The Himba woman in northern Namibia >

Last time, we looked at the oldest fine arts and the ocher that were used abundantly over the world.
Using the red selectively has concerned with the creation of fine arts.
This time, I will consider this.

The Himba woman has covered their body and hair with red ocher that dissolved with oil.
This is not only sunscreen, but also the female beauty that has symbolized blood color of life.


前回、地球最古の美術とオーカーが多用されたことを見ました。
赤色を選択的に使うことは、「美術の創出」に関わりがあります。
今回、これを考察します。

ヒンバ族の女性は油で溶いた赤色オーカーを体と髪に塗ります。
これは日焼け防止もあるが、血の色が生命を象徴する女性の美しさなのです。



the ancient architecture in China, Japan, and South Korea

  the ancient architecture in China, Japan, and South Korea >

The ancient architecture in East Asia was almost red color.
Fig. A is the oldest Buddhist temple in Luoyang, China (the 1st century).
Fig. B is a gate of Heian Jingu in Kyoto and was reproduce a part of Heiankyo of the 8th century.
Fig. C is a tower of the Buddhist temple in Koyasan, Japan.
Fig. D is a gate of the detached palace of the 15th century in Seoul, South Korean.

At present, although many of temples of the ancient city were fading, they were shining with vermilion at when they were built.
Since ancient times, the appearance of the king's palace, the shrine, and the temple in East Asia was applied red.


東アジアの古代建築は赤一色。
Aは洛陽にある中国最古の仏教寺院(白馬寺)です(1世紀)。
Bは京都の平安神宮の門で、8世紀の平安京を一部再現したものです。
Cは日本、高野山の仏教寺院の塔です。
Dは韓国ソウルにある15世紀の離宮の門です。

現在、古都の寺院の多くは色褪せているが創建当時は朱色に輝いていた。
古来、東アジアの王宮、神殿、寺院の外観は赤く塗られていた。


Left side, a Ryukyu king is standing in front Shuri Castle. Right Side, Buddha Amida was painted in Tibet. 

< Left side, a Ryukyu king is standing in front Shuri Castle. Right Side, Buddha Amida was painted in Tibet. >

In Asia, the red had an important meaning.
Ryukyu Dynasty was the style of China as same as Korean Peninsula.
The dress for courtesy in three nations was the same crimson.
In Buddhism, the body color of the highest Buddha Amida was red.
The red color symbolizes authority and dignityAnd it gives people an idea of great benefit.


アジアにおいて、赤は重要な意味を持っていた。
琉球王朝は朝鮮半島と同様に中国風でした。その儀礼用装束は三カ国同じ真っ赤でした。
大乗仏教の最高仏阿弥陀如来の身色は赤で表された。
赤色は権威と尊厳を象徴し、人々に絶大な恩恵をイメージさせた。


Red color in Europe, Egypt, and South America 


< Red color in Europe, Egypt, and South America >

On other continents, what is the red role?
Fig. A is a room of the Palace of Knossos in Crete (around the BC 19th century).
It was rare to apply red color to building in Europe.
Fig. B is Seth God in ancient Egypt, and its body color is red that means the calamity.
Fig. C is a Mass of martyrdom by the priest with red vestment.
In Christianity, although the red color meant the love, yet it more meant the evil and the sacrifice.
Fig. D is the female doll that was decorated with red for sacrifice in Inca Empire.
Probably, latter three were emphasized the minus images of the scorching sun or blood.

他の大陸において、赤色の役割は・・・
Aはクレタ島のクノッソス宮殿の一室です(BC19世紀頃)。ヨーロッパの建物が赤で塗られることは少ない。
Bは古代エジプトのセト神で、この邪神の身色は災厄を意味した赤でした。
Cは赤い祭服の司祭による殉教のミサです。キリスト教で、赤は愛を示すこともあるが、悪魔や生け贄をより意味した。
Dはインカ帝国の赤で飾られた生け贄用の女性人形です。
後の三つは、灼熱の太陽や血のマイナスイメージが強調されたのだろう。


What do the red color mean?
Since ancient times, the red color was strongly concerned with good luck, disaster, love, and authority (sacredness) around the world.
It changed by the cultural sphere or the religion little by little.
The meaning of red was probably separated to two, because the people that lived in Middle East of dry climate or in Asia of moistness climate had the difference in the consciousness to the sun.
Even so, because it has a meaning that originates a long time ago, the red color has still continued to give strong impact.


赤色の意味するもの
古来、赤色は世界各地で吉兆、厄災、愛、権威(神聖)などと強く結びついていた。
それは文化圏や宗教によって異なっていた。
赤色イメージは、湿潤なアジアと乾燥した中東とで、太陽への意識の違いにより、二つに別れたのだろう。
それでも赤色が強いインパクトを与え続けてきたのは、赤色に遙かに時代を遡る意味があったからだろう。

We look back the evolution a little.
All from insect to primates, when it has been born, it has the smell (sexual pheromone), taste, and vision image (snake) that stir up a feeling of likes and dislikes.
A scholar says, “the reason that human beings have feeling special to red originates in having asked for fruits ripe of red color on tree.” 
The period from birth of the primates is 60 million years.


少し進化を振り返ろう。
昆虫に始まり霊長類は生まれながらにして、好悪の感情を呼び覚ます臭い(性フェロモン)、味、視覚イメージ(蛇)がある。
ある進化学者は、人類が赤色に特別な感情を持つのは、霊長類の誕生から始まる6千万年間の樹上生活において、赤く熟した果実を求めたことに起因すると言う。


What is art?
The primitive man came to use the red color selectively, probably, because it had satisfied their comfortable feelings.
The revolutionary change occurred in that time, because the ability of associating some imagery and expressing the imagery was being born in their brain.

They had associated some imagery with the law of causality that they thought. Then they expressed it. It will give them a pleasant sensation and a sense of relief, and might had induced art.

At that time, if there was dense group society, the art was born at a breath, and the culture grew.

It produced the necklace, the Venus, the statues of lion man, flutes, and many rock arts of game animal.

Next time, I look at other mysteries hidden in primitive fine arts.


芸術とは何か?
原人が赤色を重宝し始めたのは、それが良好な感情を満足させたからでしょう。
画期が生まれたのは、彼らの脳に、イメージの連想と、表現力が誕生しつつあったからでしょう。

彼らは考えた因果律と心象を関連づけ、それを表現することで、快感や安堵感を覚え、芸術を生むことになった。

もし、この時に密な集団社会があれば、その芸術は一気呵成に花が開き、文化が生まれた。

このことが首飾りに始まり、ビーナスやライオンマンの像、フルート、狩猟動物の岩絵を生みだした。


次回は、原初美術に秘められた他の謎を追います。





Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Birth of primitive art 15 : What did precede the primitive art ? part1


  Blombos Cave in South Africa

< Blombos Cave in South Africa. A cave entrance is right-hand mountain side.  modern human beings lived 100,000 years ago. 

Till last time, we looked at the primitive fine arts since 35000 years ago in the world.
Didn't human beings make fine arts during 5 million?
This time, I will approach this mystery.


前回まで、35000年前以降の世界の原初美術を見て来ました。


それ以前の500万年の間、人類は美術を作らなかったのでしょうか。

今回は、この謎に迫ります。



The oldest figure 

< The oldest figure >
Fig. A, the figure was found in Israel, was made of a red stone between 700000 and 230000 years ago, and was 4 cm in height.

Fig. B, the figure was found in Morocco, was made of a quartz between 500000 and 300000 years ago, and was 6 cm in height. 
Red ocher had adhered to the surface.
Both are considered that primitive man made.

Ages ago, primitive man on the way of evolution was performing fine arts creation.

Aはイスラエルで見つかった23~70万年前の高さ4cmの赤い岩製人物像です。
Bはモロッコで見つかった30~50万年前の高さ6cmの石英製人物像です。その表面に赤いオーカーが付着していた。
両方共、原人が作ったと考えられる。

遙か昔、現世人類への進化途上の原人が美術創作を行っていたのです。


The oldest painting in Africa 

< The oldest painting in Africa >
This painting found at the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia is estimated to date from approximately 25,000–27,000 years ago. It is an animal figure drawn on the slate.

At the south end of Africa, the creation was performed nearly in parallel to the Europe glacial epoch fine arts.

これはナミビアのアポロ11洞窟で見つかった約25000~27000年前の動物図です。

アフリカ南端で、ヨーロッパ氷河期美術とほぼ並行して創作が行われていたのです。


something like fine arts  

< something like fine arts  >
Fig. A are the oldest bead made of many shells between 140000 and 100000 years ago, and were found in the cave in Israel.

Fig. B is an ocher found at Blombos Cave in South Africa. On its surface was the straight line pattern engraved, and it was made 75000 years ago.
In the cave where modern human beings were living, 8000 pieces and 12 sharpened crayons of ocher were found.
There were also brown and yellow colors of ocher, but the red was the most.
Ocher with the oldest used marks was found in Zambia in Africa, and was thing of 250,000 years ago.
Fig. C is a plate was found at Neanderthal ruins in Hungary, it was made of ivory at 250000 years ago. Red ocher had adhered to the surface.
It is considered that people was using at the ceremony over a long period of time.

What does the appearance of the bead, the plate, and the ocher mean?
This is concerned with "what is fine art?" deeply

The answer will be concerned with the relation of red color of ocher and human beings.


Aはイスラエルの洞窟(Skhūl,で見つかった10~14万年前の最古の貝殻製ビーズです。
Bは南アフリカのブロンボスで見つかった75000年以上前の直線模様が刻まれたオーカー(黄土)の一つです。この現世人類が生活していた洞窟からは8千点のオーカーと先端を尖らせたクレヨンが12本見つかった。オーカーの色は黄色と茶色もあったが、赤が最も多かった。
最も古い使用痕のあるオーカーはアフリカのザンビアで見つかり、25万年前のものです。
Cはハンガリーのネアンデルタール人遺跡(タタ)で見つかった象牙製プレートで、赤いオーカーが塗られていた。これは入念に作られ、長期間繰り返し儀式などに使われたと推測される。

このビーズやプレート、オーカーの出現は何を意味するのでしょうか?
これは「美術とは何か」と深く関わっています。

オーカーの赤色と人類の関わりにその答えがありそうです。


Burial and red color

< Burial and red color >

Fig.A is two small children's burial at 27000 years ago in Austria. Many red ochers was scattered there.   
In burial of Cro-Magnon after 37000 years ago, accessories attached to the dead and ocher was scattered on it.
Although Neanderthal was burying after 70,000 years ago, the dead that was painted with red pigments is seen in various area of Europe.
Ocher was used also with many pictures in every area of the earth.
Fig.B is the inner room of an ancient tomb in Japan at 5th century, and it is also painted in red.
This red was made from mercury and sulfur.

Since time began, the red color had an important meaning in every corner of the earth.

Next time, I want to explain this meaning.

Aはオーストリアで見つかった27000年前の幼児2体の埋葬で、赤いオーカーが撒かれている。37000年前以降のクロマニヨン人の埋葬では、死者はオーカーが撒かれていることがある。ネアンデルタール人は7万年前以降、埋葬を行っていたが、赤色顔料を塗った遺体がヨーロッパ各地で見られる。世界各地の絵画にもオーカーは使用されていた。

Bは5世紀、日本の亀山古墳の墓室も赤く塗られていた。この赤は水銀と硫黄から作られた。

遙か昔から世界各地で赤色は重要な意味を持っていた。

次回、この意味を説き明かしたいと思います。



Saturday, April 20, 2013

New fables of Aesop 4 : pigeon and hawk


 pigeon

Once upon a time, two islands were floating on a north sea.
The pigeon had lived on one island, and the hawk had lived on the other island.

遙か昔、北の海に二つの島が浮かんでいました。
一つの島にはハトが、他方にはタカが暮らしていました。


 island

In a certain year, because it snowed most early, nuts and small animals decreased dramatically.
The hawk was troubled by famine, and then became attacking the pigeon of the neighboring island.

その年は雪が早く降って木の実が少なく、リスなどの小動物が激減した。
タカ達は餌に困り、隣の島のハトを襲うようになりました。


hawk

The pigeon also was also troubled by hunger.
Since pigeon’s fellows became to be attacked by the hawk, they gathered to discuss by all members.

“ Even if we fight, never get a chance of victory. We have hidden in holes, and must wait till good time. ”
Many of birds with a family have thought so.

“ An attack is the greatest defense. We should fight bravely all together. “
When a young man spoke like it, the place soon filled with extraordinary excitement.
Anybody was not able to propose other opinion, and then the pre-emptive strike was decided.

“ We cannot survive by hiding or battling. Once, we have seen the bird dancing in the southward sky in the distance. We should leave toward south far. “
Some birds have felt sure of it.


ハト達も飢えに苦しんでいました。
仲間が襲われるようになったので、皆で話し合いました。

戦っても勝算はない。穴に隠れて時の過ぎるのを待つべきだ。」
家族を持つ者達の多くはそう思っていました。

「攻撃は最大の防御である。皆で団結し勇敢に戦うべきだ。」
若者が発言すると、やがてその場はその熱情に沸き立って行きました
他の案は沈黙せざるを得ず、先制攻撃が決まりました。

「戦うことも隠れることも勝算はない。遠く南の空に舞う鳥を見ることがある。南を目指し旅立つべきだ。」
一部の者は、確信していました。


pigeon  flew

The day of execution came at last.

A group of the brave pigeons flew in early morning toward the island of hawk.
There was a group of the pigeon that flew toward southern sky a little late.

At last, the birds disappeared from both islands mostly.

Then, many years passed.

Migratory birds have come to visit the island of pigeon only in summer.
The birds that eat fish have only lived in the island of hawk.

The birds are the posterity of birds that escaped the battle and took another selection those days.



とうとう決行の日が訪れました。

勇敢なハトの一団は朝早く、タカの島を目指し飛び立ちました。
少し遅れて、南の空に向かって飛び立つハトの一団がありました。
ついに両方の島からほとんど鳥はいなくなりました。

それから月日は流れました。

ハトの島には渡り鳥が夏だけ飛来するようになりました。
タカの島では魚を食べる鳥だけが暮らすようになりました。

その鳥達は、当時、戦いを逃れて別の選択をしたものの子孫だったのです。


sea gull

Since family love and brotherly love blazes up, people become bravery, but reckless.
Probably, selection of battle evasion will be important although it is accompanied by courage and wisdom, difficulties.


家族愛、同胞愛は激しく燃え上がり、人を勇敢にもし、無謀にもします。
戦い回避の選択は智恵と勇気、苦労を伴うが、重要でしょう。





Thursday, April 18, 2013



tulips

It is the latter part of Akashi Kaikyo National Goverment park was introduced last time.

This time, I also introduce the woods, trees and valley, and river in the park.

Since the cherry blossoms were falling at the time, I mainly introduce flowerbeds.


前回紹介した明石海峡公園の後編になります。

今回は森と木々、谷と川が織りなす景観も紹介します。

桜が散っていたので、やはり花壇が主になります。


tulips

The gradation of tulips is an extravagant spectacle.


チューリップのグラデーションとはなんと贅沢な光景でしょうか。


Akashi Kaikyo National Goverment park

It is nearly panoramic view of the park.

The central part in it is woods and valleys, and right-hand side is a pond and flowerbeds.

This is Ishikawa's photograph.


高台から見下ろした公園です。中央部は森と谷で、右側に池と花壇があります。これは石河氏の写真です。


livingston daisies

The valley where livingston daisies have bloomed has been surrounded by woods.


リビングストンデージーが咲く谷は森に囲まれている。


valley

When the cherry blossoms bloom, this valley is beautiful.


せせらぎがあるこの谷は桜が満開の時は趣があるのですが。


pink witch hazel

The pink witch hazel was full bloom.


ピンク色のマンサクが満開でした。


 tulip

This is a tulip of a big potted plant.

これは大きな鉢植えを撮ったものです。


Flowerbed

Flowerbeds spread out radiately on the gently-sloping slope.

In this way, I finished a refreshing day surrounded by wonderful flowers.


丘の上の白い建物からなだらかな斜面へ放射状に花壇が広がっています。

こうしてすばらしい花々に囲まれた爽快な半日は終わりました。





Tuesday, April 16, 2013

A park in Awaji Island :  Plenty of tulips in full bloom 1





flower,park


I went Akashi Kaikyo National Government Park in Awaji-Island on this April 14.

Various tulips had filled the vast park.

When the sun was strong, primary color brightness of flowers seethed from the circumference.

私はこの4月14日に淡路島の国営明石海峡公園に行ってきました。

色とりどりのチューリップが広大な公園を埋めつくしていました。

陽が差し込むと、原色の輝きが周囲から沸き立つようでした。


 flower, park

This park is a park of flowers and greens, and is embraced in the slope of mountain and seashore, and is 1.5 km in length, and 400 m in width.

Although it was cloudy unluckily, about 600,000 flowers were in glory just now.
Hundreds of kinds of tulips were playing "harmony of color."


この公園は山の斜面と海岸に抱かれた長さ約1.5km、巾400mの花と緑の公園です。

あいにく曇りがちでしたが、約60万株の花々が今を盛りに咲き誇っていました。

数百種類のチューリップが「色彩のハーモニー」を奏でていました。


 flower,park

Vivid color tulips are beautiful particularly.

鮮やかなチューリップはひときわ映える。


 flower,park

Various flowerbeds spread to full range of view, and Osaka Bay lies beyond it.

色とりどりの花壇が視界一杯に広がり、その向こうに大阪湾が見える。


flower,park

I am thrilled to the vividness of tulips.

チューリップの鮮やかさに息を呑む。


flower,park

It seems that followers are playing a symphony.

花々が交響曲を奏でているようだ。


flower,park

The yellow tulips had fluttered in the fresh wind.

黄色いチューリップが爽やかな風になびいていた。


flower,park

The official site of this park is here.

Always, the flowers are planted, and we can occasionally enjoy cherry trees, fresh greens, and autumnal leaves in the part of the forest.

I introduce the remainder next time.



ここは年中、花々が植栽されており、森林の部では桜、新緑、紅葉が折々に楽しめます。

次回は後半になります。