Thursday, June 5, 2014

The society and the information 31 : Information crosses the border 5

 Pro-democracy demonstration of East Germany in 1989

  1.  Pro-democracy demonstration of East Germany in 1989   >

Following the last article, I investigate the cause of having led the collapse of the Berlin Wall.
This was a information that apprised people about their being supported by many people, and it scattered seeds of hope on the their heart.


Berlin Wall construction in 1961 

< 2.  Berlin Wall construction in 1961 >

John Paul II 

< 3.  John Paul II >

What gave people a supportive push?
All the worker has a right of labor union formation, in order to protect a social right and human rights. “ Solidarity” is a precious mental inheritance in not only the Polish people but the world" (summary)
The pope from Poland, at the New Year's greeting in 1981, blamed it strongly to Poland government for oppressing the people by the martial law.
Those days, Western countries also blamed the high-handed policy of East European country’s government.
Christianity was ardently believed by people in East Europe and East Germany.
And the church had taken sides with the people and came to strongly request a conversation to the government. 
In East Germany too, from about 1982, a peaceful march was performed at the church in Leipzig every week.
And in first, the march that had begun at about 100 people became 200,000 people and spread in the whole country.


 a movie film of Katyn massacre 

 4.    a movie film of Katyn massacre  

In addition, by Gorbachev's information disclosure, some truths of the past disgusting incident in which the Soviet Union or communism system were concerned came to light.
And the history was reviewed, and the people had confidence in the direction of their aim at increasingly.

However, biggest thing that influenced people was probably that the people have shared the wave of East European democratization, and first-hand information from Western Europe.
In Hungary, people’s trip to Europe was liberalized completely in the beginning of 1988.
In East Germany, the television broadcasting from West Germany could be easily received from long ago, and acquisition of foreign newspapers or books was also easy.
In Romania, in order to restrict the information, the duty of the possession report of a typewriter had been imposed, but it could not interrupt the wave.
In this way, the wave had spread to Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Romania in no time.



 People of East Germany traversing a Hungary border 

 5.  People of East Germany traversing a Hungary border 

What was the last push?
In September 1989, Hungary government permitted the departure to Austria East German citizens asking for exile.
Thereby, a lot of East German citizens flowed into West Germany through both countries.
At this time, the wall of East-West division came to make no sense.
In East Germany, although there had been a quiet movement asking for their freedom from long ago, the demonstrations expanded at a stretch.
In October, Gorbachev who had visited to the East Germany encouraged the democracy movement of the people, in disregard of embarrassment of the East Germany government.
The government collapsed and the Berlin Wall was destroyed by citizens on November 9.



As crossing a border, the first-hand information that was transmitted by the exchange of economy or people taught the truth to the people, and also the support from abroad gave them courage.
In this way, the liberalization and the democratization that seemed to be impossibility became possible without bloodshed depending on the courage and the wise decision of many people aiming at the reform.


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