Monday, June 2, 2014

The society and the information 30: information crosses the border 4

 the collapse of the Berlin Wall

< 1.  the collapse of the Berlin Wall >

This time, I watch a story of how the collapse of the Berlin Wall happened in 1989.
It was like that a stormy blew above the Soviet Union, East Europe, and defunct East Germany.
Just like a spring storm, after going away, the people would taste joy of the liberation.


both the Presidents of Reagan and Gorbachev

< 2.  both the Presidents of Reagan and Gorbachev


After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, East-West Germany was unified.
And East European countries such as Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia converted from the single-party regime subordinated to the Soviet Union to a democracy nation.
Now, many have participated in EU and the people get freedom and economic development.
The people seem to enjoy fully the freedom of a movement, a habitation, a finding employment, and speech in the EU area.
However, ten years ago, there was no freedom in those countries, the people suffered economic stagnation, and their complaint was suppressed by the security police and the army.


 Hungarian capital of Budapest and Danube 

< 3.  Hungarian capital of Budapest and Danube >

What became a trigger?
While the Soviet Union economy had become weak, in 1985, the President Gorbachev appeared with advocating perestroika (reform) and glasnost (information disclosure).
He thought it indispensable for people facing directly the problem and talking frankly for escaping from the slump.
In the federation, he aimed at the democratization and promoted a market economy from a planned economy.
As for the diplomacy, he promoted a nuclear disarmament between the U.S., and declared the military nonintervention to East Europe, or recognizing the independent of the republic in the federation.
In the backdrop, there was a failure of the planned economy, the high burden of military expansion expenses, and a detente among the U.S., Republic of China, and the Soviet Union.
In addition, the disaster of Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 raised an importance of people's information disclosure, and awareness about the politics.  
Under one-party regime that was assumed to have been decayed strongly, I was amazed that the reform had advanced without big resistance.


"Prague Spring" incident in Czechoslovakia

< 4.  "Prague Spring" incident in Czechoslovakia  

What had been occurring in East Europe?

Although East European people appealed for the reform of economy and politics many times with performing the demonstration and the strike, people were strangled after bloodletting always.
In Czechoslovakia, "Prague Spring" which aimed at liberalization in 1968 collapsed by the Soviet Union having led the army, and the dark long time came to continue.
However, in Poland, the trade union "Solidarity" of 1 million people affiliation was formed in 1980 and pressed the government for the reform.
Hungary was closest to Europe historically, borrowed much money from Europe, and the economic exchange advanced.
And then the democratization momentum of the people had been rising.
In 1985, the party that the trade union having been born one after another recommended won congressional seat for the first time in the general election finally.
And one-party dictatorship was broken.
As for this, other East Europe and East Germany were similar.


 Chairman Walesa of “Solidarity” in Poland 

< 5.   Chairman Walesa of “Solidarity” in Poland >

Next time, I look at what made the people challenging.


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