Friday, December 20, 2013

History of sickness and medical art 16: Ancient Israel 2

 Jesus turns merchants out of the shrine.

< Jesus turns merchants out of the shrine. >

We watch ancient medical art of Israel from now on.
First, let's see some descriptions of the doctor in the Bible.


Construction of the second shrine

< Construction of the second shrine >

A. “And in the thirty and ninth year of his reign Asa was diseased in his feet; his disease was exceeding great: yet in his disease he sought not to Jehovah, but to the physicians.”
“And Asa slept with his fathers, and died in the one and fortieth year of his reign.”
2Chron 16:12,13
Although this describes the king of the Judah kingdom in 868 BC, it was edited in the 4th century BC.


Alexandria library: an academic city that Alexander the Great built 

< Alexandria library: an academic city that Alexander the Great built >

B. “Honor a physician according to your need of him with the honors due to him:
For verily the Lord has created him.”
“The skill of the physician shall lift up his head; And in the sight of great men he shall be admired.”
Sirach 38:1,3
This was edited at the end of the 2th century BC.


C. “And Jesus having heard [it] says to them, they that are strong have not need of a physician, but those who are ill. I have not come to call righteous [men], but sinners.”
Mark 2:17


the Roma forces destroyed Jerusalem

< the Roma forces destroyed Jerusalem >

I chose the above sentences among ten books of the bible that included descriptions of the doctor, along chronological order of establishment.
In the Old Testament, the doctor was positioned in the low rank than God.
In A, the person who ignored God paid the penalty, but in B, the position of the doctor improved.
In other section of the New Testament, although there were the complaints about not being cured by the doctor, in C, it is recognized that the doctor is the healer of the sick person.
The doctor in Egypt and Mesopotamia also was ranked lower than the flamen .
In this way, the recognition to "the sickness and the doctor" seems to have changed during about 400 years.

The established time of these books was tumultuous time for the people of Judea.
Time of A:  the people were released from the Babylonian captivity, and returned to Jerusalem.
Then they rebuilt the shrine, and were riding high for the reconstruction.
Time of B: After invasion of Alexander the Great, while the people had been subject to Greek civilization (Hellenism), they gained the independence of Palestine to aim at racial self-determination.
Time of C: After an internal fighting, division of small country occurred, and the Roman Empire ruled it.
Judaism was preserved, but had become emasculation.
Jesus lived in this time.


Aの時期: 人々はバビロンの捕囚から解放され、エルサレムに戻り、神殿を再建し、復興の意気盛んな時代でした。
Bの時期: アレクサンドロス大王の侵略後、ギリシャ文明(ヘレニズム)の影響を受ける中で、民族自決を目指しパレスチナの独立を勝ち取った時代でした。
Cの時期: 内乱、小国分裂の後、ローマ帝国が支配し、ユダヤ教は温存され形骸化していた。イエスはこの時代を生きた。

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