Monday, December 14, 2015

Went around Croatia and Slovenia 18:  The wonder of Dubrovnik 4

クロアチア・スロベニアを巡って 18: ドゥブロブニクの不思議 4

< 1. Dubrovnik >
< 1. ドゥブロブニク >

I see how Dubrovnik coped with the situation change, and what happened in Europe.
This is my last entry in the theme.


< 2.  Neum of dusk >
< 2. 夕暮れのネウム >

Skillful diplomacy of Dubrovnik

Hungary kept a patron of Dubrovnik in place of Venice from 1359 until it suffered a crushing defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1526.
However, Dubrovnik continued to reject the dispatch of governor from Hungary, and started to pay tributes to the Ottoman Empire in 1458.
Because of this, Dubrovnik was allowed for the commercial activity in Balkan and other conquest places, became a counterbalancing power against Venice, and was at the height of the prosperity in the 15-16th century.
Furthermore, in 1699, it devolved territory Neum (photo 2) to the Ottoman Empire and assumed it a shield to the Venice navy.
Small town Neum of a shore belongs to a territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina currently, and has made Dubrovnik the enclave of Croatia.
Here was our accommodation, and I introduce it later.



< 3.  The Mediterranean Sea >
< 3.地中海 >
1: Dubrovnik 2: Venice  3: Genoa  4:  Constantinople(Istanbul)  5: Alexandria  6: Lisbon  7:  Ceuta  8: Athen  9: Rome  10: Jerusalem.

1: ドゥブロブニク 2:ベネチア 3: ジェノバ 4: コンスタンティノープル(イスタンブール) 5: アレキサンドリア 6: リスボン 7: セウタ 8: アテネ 9: ローマ 10:エルサレム

What decided the outcome of Genoa and Venice?
The two countries continued the East-West trade through Ethiopia of Christianity country and Egypt of the Islamic power (annotation 1).
However, this decrepit Islamic dynasty practiced the monopolization of spice in 1428, and the price jumped up.
The purchase price from Egypt increased to approximately 1.5 times than before, and became 16 times in comparison with the direct purchase from India.

On the other hand, Genoa defeated by Venice found its way into the Atlantic Ocean, and joined with Portugal.
Portugal that had accomplished Reconquista (annotation 2) captured Ceuta of the opposite shore in 1415, and aspired to trade with India around the west side of Africa.
At last, it became possible by Vasco da Gama's expedition in 1498
In the early 16th century, most of the spice did not arrive at Egypt from India.

Thus, Venice that had been proud of its prosperity by the monopoly fell rapidly.
Spain participated in it and since the Age of Geographical Discovery began, Genoa survived by banking




< 4. Renaissance fine art. By “Web gallery of art”
< 4.ルネサンス美術。「Web gallery of art」より >

Two shocks of Europe

One of them is the beginning of the Age of Geographical Discovery, as we have seen already.

The other one is the beginning of Renaissance.
Greek classical study flowed out to Italy from the declined Byzantine Empire, and Renaissance flowered in Italy by combining with cities that prospered in trade
The Greek classical study was popular from ancient times in Byzantium, and was also spreading to Islamic world.
Knowledge of Islamic world and the Greek classical study were introduced to Europe via Spain already.

After this, European development shifted to the west and north of it along with the Age of Geographical Discovery, and Italy became an economical undeveloped area in the middle of the 17th century.
Three maritime republics of the Mediterranean Sea died out by the armed forces and cannon of Napoleon before long.




< 5.  Torre de Belen in Lisbon >         
< 5. リスボンのベレンの塔 >          

Thing that I think about this history
Venice made the Byzantine Empire weak by the sea power, and got full prosperity, but it hastened the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and came to cut its throat.
Genoa was defeated by Venice, found its way into the west, and got good luck.

Small Dubrovnik didn't depend on the sea power, and crossed between great nations by the trade and the diplomacy.
I think to be because this city had tolerance that absorbs different ethnic groups and heathenism since the beginning.

In the world, there are many examples that small countries fight desperately between great nations, such as Israel, Korean Peninsula and Vietnam.
But the success example of Dubrovnik was rare.

I introduce sightseeing spots from the next time again.





Annotation 1:  The Ottoman Empire of Islam isn't included in the Islamic power.

Annotation 2:  Reconquista was the continued war that Christian expelled Islamic power that invaded since 711 year from Iberian Peninsula.
The war began at 722, Portugal completed it by 1290, and Spain did it in 1492 by falling Granada.
Through this process, both Portugal and Spain kingdoms were formed.

注釈1: ここではイスラム教のオスマンをイスラム勢力に含めていない。

注釈2: レコンキスタは、キリスト教徒が、711年イベリア半島に侵入したイスラム勢力を駆逐するために行なった国土回復運動です。

「東西文明の交流 3、イスラム帝国の遺産」島田襄平編集、平凡社刊。P199,215,217.
「東西文明の交流 2、ペルシアと唐」山田信夫編集、平凡社刊。P395,427.
「図説 世界の歴史4、ビザンツ帝国とイスラーム文明」J..ロバーツ著、創元社刊。P105,109,185.
「世界の歴史 8、イスラーム世界の興隆」佐藤次高著、中央公論刊。P277,313,331,341.
「世界の歴史 11、ビザンツとスラブ」井上浩一著、中央公論刊。P19,157,163,185,201.
「世界の歴史 16、ルネサンスと地中海」樺山紘一著、中央公論刊。P79,p115.
「歴史入門」 フェルナン・ブローデル著、太田出版。P49.
「図説 大航海時代」増田義郎著、河出書房新社刊。P49.
「知の再発見 黄金のビザンティン帝国」ミシェル・カプラン著、創元社。
「図説 ビザンツ帝国」根津由喜夫著、河出書房新社刊。P70.

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