Monday, November 12, 2012

Misunderstanding of war 7: the Vietnam War 1

映画プラトーン,films Platoon 
< films Platoon >

Do you know the Vietnam War (19601975 years)?  After World War II, it was the maximum, and a longest and miserable war.

A lot of youth of Vietnam don't know the Vietnam War.  Although the movie describing the war is famous for a "platoon" and "Apocalypse Now", about 90 works were manufactured in the world.

Those days Japan and the U.S. enthusiastically hold the demonstration against the Vietnam War, but it was difficult to stop it.

Why did Vietnam of small country perform the war that died 6 million people with both sides?  This time, I analyze it.

皆さんはベトナム戦争(1960~75年)を知っているだろうか? 第二次世界大戦後、最大、最長かつ悲惨な戦争でした。




 ベトナム戦争, the Vietnam War

< the Vietnam War, Wikipedia >

This war had big misunderstanding between Vietnam and U.S. leaders from the beginning.

A victorious nation always got immense profits, as we have seen already.

A purpose of The U.S. was only to prevent communization going southward.

On the other hand, Vietnam repetitively was invaded and ruled by Chinese over 2000 years.

Especially the northern part of Vietnam often fought the war of independence, and it was the bushfighting in jungle.

From 130 years ago, Vietnam was occupied by France, and by Japan during several years in the World War II, after the War, they began to fight aiming at independence.

In 1930, before the World War , Vietnam aimed for independence in communist state by gaining assistance of the Soviet Union and China.



Although the U.S. opposed the France colonial policy in Vietnam at first, the U.S. changed its mind by strain (cold war) with the Soviet Union, and there also was the fear of communism.

After the World War , the U.S. and Soviet confronted each other, and began nuclear competition and  obtained each alliance countries all over the world.

Further, In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea suddenly, and the Korean War broke out, and also the China army also participated in the war.

Thereby, the U.S. felt the threat for the communist country at a stretch.

The U.S. is the greatest economic big power and had already self-confident for the police (military power) in the world.

An independent war of northern Vietnam spread soon, and France withdrew in 1954.

The military aid of the Soviet Union and China was effective against this.

Although another political power made the Declaration of Independence in southern Vietnam next year, this was a puppet government by the U.S. that succeeded the policy of France.

Then, the U.S. scraps a promised north-south general election, decides north-south division, and begins to give the South Vietnam government economy and military aid.

This policy is based on the Communist bloc containment strategy (domino theory), was taken over to the President for generations, and was performed.

Soon, the U.S. increased the military aid and started Hanoi bombing in 1965, and swelled the expeditionary force of the ally to 550,000 peoples in 1969.



On the other hand, the southern puppet government killed hundreds of thousands of people who demand north-south unification using the secret police.

Also after that, the southern political power repeated decomposition and autocracy, and was disliked by the public.

In this way, Viet Cong who aims at release of South Vietnam was born from South Vietnam in 1960.

North Vietnam and Viet Cong connect an alliance, and hold bushfighting in a jungle.

The South Vietnam government troops and the U.S. allied forces fought against it.

The U.S. forces became an uphill battle.  With the napalm bomb and the defoliant, burned jungle and weeded until nothing.

It was ineffective, one part of the U.S. soldier who became mentally cornered burned down the whole village, and killed all people.



 反戦デモ,A U.S. ,antiwar demonstration 

< A U.S. antiwar demonstration >
Although the Vietnam War had repeated alternation between advance and retreat, the President was not able to back out from war.

Since 1964, an antiwar demonstration broke out all over the world as the miserable situation or increase of the U.S. soldiers dead is found in Vietnam.

The U.S. Forces had spent 60,000 dead persons of the U.S. soldier, and the immense cost of war (equivalent to GDP of Japan for 1970 years), with no victorious prospect.

In 1969, when a slaughter case in the My Lai village was reported to the world, the greatest antiwar demonstration in the U.S became 1 million people.

President Nixon is the 4th President from a war start, and He made the war finish.

 ニクソンと毛沢東の会談,The talk between Nixon and Mao Tse-Tung

< The talk between Nixon and Mao Tse-Tung >

Nixon immediately visited China and the Soviet Union in February and May 1972.
He thawed "fear and hostility between liberalism and communism" in an moment.

In 1973, the U.S. and Vietnam became the end of the war.

Then, the liberation army attacked Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, the war of independence ended here, and north and south were unified. 

Next time, we find how the military leader of the both countries made war escalate at the time of the Vietnam War.   





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