Saturday, December 12, 2015

Went around Croatia and Slovenia 17:  The wonder of Dubrovnik 3

クロアチア・スロベニアを巡って 17: ドゥブロブニクの不思議 3

1.  The Crusade was capturing Constantinople >
1. 十字軍によるコンスタンティノーブル攻略 >

Today, we look at huge wave undulation surrounding the Mediterranean Sea in those days.
The Keywords are the Byzantine Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire), Islamic power, the Crusade, the East-West trade and the Ottoman Empire.


< 2.  Byzantine territory. Blue dot is Dubrovnik >
< 2. ビザンティンの領土、青点がドゥブロブニク >

The Byzantine Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire)
In 476, the Western Roman Empire was ruined, but the Byzantine Empire continued in capital city Constantinople (Istanbul) in succession to the Roman Empire for approximately 1,000 years.
The emperors who reined over Church ruled over the territory having multiethnic population that lay astride Europe and Asia.
This Empire had got the usurpation of the throne many times, but was succeeded to as Christian country, exclusive Caesar's country, and country that prided its biggest prosperity.
The Constantinople was Europe's biggest city holding 400,000 people, and the prosperity was an object of envy from the east and west.
This prosperity was a blessing from the East-West trade between Europe and Asia.

However, it began to decline before long.
One factor was an antagonism between Europe and the Byzantine Empire, such as the birth of Holy Roman Emperor in the 10th century.
This might be due to the division between Catholic Church and Orthodox Church, and the Byzantine Empire becoming a Greek country.
At last, in 1202, the Constantinople was attacked by the fourth Crusade, and was plundered thoroughly and continued to decline after this.
This betrayal came at the instruction of Venice.

Other factor was largely a result of the rise of Asia power like Islamic power and the Ottoman Empire.
The Byzantine Empire fell by invasion of the Ottoman Empire in 1453.




< 3. Territory of Islamic power. Blue dot is Dubrovnik. Red line is main route of the East-West trade.
< 3. イスラム帝国の領土、青点がドゥブロブニク、赤線が東西交易ルート >

Islamic power

Islam was born in the Arabian Peninsula in the early seventh century, and Islamic power spread from the Iberian Peninsula to Iranian Plateau such as surrounding Europe at the end of the eighth century.
Furthermore, the Islamic power came to rule the west Mediterranean Sea.

During the 11th century and the 12th century, Christianity countries performed the Crusade for recapture of Palestine and fought against Islamic power.
Since about the 11th century, Muslim has begun to sell spice of the Indian Ocean to the Maritime republics of Italia via Egypt and the Red Sea.
This East-West trade to Europe continued even if it was broken off by wars.
In Europe, the demand for spice increased due to its growth since about the 12th century.



< 4.  Territory of Ottoman Empire. Red is Dubrovnik >
< 4. オスマンの領土、赤点がドゥブロブニク >

The Ottoman Empire
Turk who came over from the Central Asia began to take on power in Iran and Asia Minor.
The Ottoman Empire became powerful at the end of the thirteenth century, destroyed the Byzantine Empire later, and renamed the capital to Istanbul.
Before long, it moved toward the north in Balkan Peninsula and surrounded Vienna of Austria in 1529.
It was defeated by the Venetian navy at first, but controlled the sea of the Mediterranean Sea in the 16th century.

However, in the end of the 16th century, it abandoned Balkan Peninsula and reduced its rule areas, due to the offensive by Europe and the moving toward the south of Russia.



< 5. Spice >
< 5. 香辛料 >

What divided the life and death of the three maritime republics
As for Dubrovnik, the change of the ruler of Balkan Peninsula was important.
As for Genoa and Venice, the movement of Egypt that was a linchpin of the East-West trade was important.

On the next time, we will see how this change of scenery influenced Dubrovnik and Europe.



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