Monday, December 7, 2015

Went around Croatia and Slovenia 15:  The wonder of Dubrovnik 1

クロアチア・スロベニアを巡って 15: ドゥブロブニクの不思議 1

< 1.  The port of Dubrovnik  >
< 1. ドゥロブニクの港 >

How did this small city-state survive between great powers?
It was the history that this city-state had continued demanding freedom.
From today, I will chase the wonder of this rare marine city-state.


When I visited this old city, I was first surprised at the huge rampart being disproportionate to the small town.
In the Middle Ages, there were a lot of free cities and seafaring countries, but there quietly was this small marine city-state that enjoyed freedom in a corner of tumultuous Balkan Peninsula.
The activity of Dubrovnik was indirectly connected with European Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.
For over 1000 years, there were various magnificent dramas of the clash of civilizations among Europe, Asia, and Africa, and the trade that extended to the Indian Ocean from the Mediterranean Sea.

I survey Dubrovnik that lived in the Middle Ages
There are romances between people and sea, and a hint to peace here.



< 2.  These seafaring countries of Italia were leaders of the Mediterranean Sea in the Middle Ages >
< 2. 中世、地中海の覇者となったイタリアの海洋共和国 >

A fig.:  It shows 8 seafaring countries of Italy and the Adriatic Sea.
Red circles are 3 countries that played an active part in the sea until the last.

B fig.:  The length of Venice main island is about 5 km.
C fig.:  The width of Genoa harbor is about 3 km.
D fig.:  The castle width of Dubrovnik that was capital of Republic of Ragusa is about 500 m.

Dubrovnik was very small compared with two great powers Venice and Genoa.

A: イタリアとアドリア海にあった8カ国の海洋共和国を示す。
B図: ベネチアの本島、その長さ約5km。
C図: ジェノバの港、その巾は約3km。
D図: ラグーサの首都ドゥブロブニクの城砦、その巾は約500m。


< 3.  A sailing ship that started to play an active part in the 15th century >
< 3. 15世紀に活躍し始めた帆船 >
The history of Dubrovnik
In the about 7th century, this town's history began from a Roman that lived at current seaside across a small canal from Slav of the mountainside.
In the 13th century, both people filled up the canal and merged.


< 4.  Around the Adriatic Sea in the middle 14th century 
< 4. 14世紀中頃のアドリア海周辺 >

After being ruled by many peoples, from the 6th century, Dubrovnik was dominated by Byzantine Empire, subsequently Venice (1204-1359), Hungary (1359-1526), and Ottoman Turkey.
From the 12th century, Dubrovnik traded between Italy and Balkan, and carried industrial products from Italy, or raw materials from Balkan.
The large ship appeared from the 13th century, and Dubrovnik had large merchant ships more than 180 in the 16th century.
The last of the 15th century, when Dubrovnik was dominated by Ottoman Turkey, its overland trade in Balkan became more active.
Furthermore, Dubrovnik’s sea trade spread from the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea, the Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean.
And Dubrovnik put the consulates in 50 cities and reached its peak.


< 5. Rector's Palace >
< 5.旧総督邸 >

In 1359, since Dubrovnik was dominated by Hungary, it came to reject a governor accredited from the imperial country.
And Dubrovnik nobles mutually elected their governor.
After this, they had been promoting the domestic administration and diplomatic policy as an independent country.
All nobles 18 years or older performed legislation and picked the execution member.
They limited governor's tenure to 1 month and avoided dictatorship.
The commoner who supported the economy wasn’t able to participate in it, but an aristocratic democratic system was performed.
This situation was made possible mainly due to the huge rampart and a large amount of contribution.

But it began to decline before long.
When the Age of Discovery began on the Atlantic side, the importance of the east Mediterranean Sea decreased.
Dubrovnik took part in two wars of Europe in the 16th and the 17th century and suffered big damage.
Furthermore, it received a crushing blow by a major earthquake of 1667, and the overland trade reduced when the influence of Ottoman Turkey began to drop.
Finally, Dubrovnik’s republic was extinct by the occupation of Napoleon in 1808 and it was dominated by the Austria territory in 1814.

This continues next time.




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