Friday, December 5, 2014

Traveling to Spain and Portugal 21: Lisbon and the Age of Discovery

Torre de Belen:  a gun battery built in 1519 

< 1.  Torre de Belen:  a gun battery built in 1519 >
< 1. べレンの塔: 1519年完成の港の砲台 >

It was in 1543 that Portuguese of the west end drifted down to Japan (Tanega-shima) of the east end.
Today, I easily chase the process that the east and the west of Eurasian Continent stumbled across mutually.


a scene that Portugal ship was calling at a port in the end of 16th century

< 2.  a scene that Portugal ship was calling at a port in the end of 16th century >
< 2. 16世紀末のポルトガル船寄港風景、南蛮屏風より >

About the Age of Discovery
From the end of 15th century, Spain and Portugal had begun to venture into Africa, Asia and American continent by the voyage.
Columbus's American Continent arrival in 1492 and Vasco da Gama's Indian route discovery via Cape of Good Hope in 1498 were turning point of an epoch.
From the end of the 16th century, the leader of the overseas advance was changing from Netherlands and France to the United Kingdom soon.
After this, world trade and colony spread, and the Industrial Revolution happened before long.
On the other hand, the Christian propagation advanced, too.


Lisbon in 1572

< 3.  Lisbon in 1572 >
< 3. 1572年当時のリスボン >

The history of Lisbon
It was one of the oldest cities in Western Europe, and originated from Phoenicia's making a base for trading with the north (in about B.C. 1200).
After that, it became the greatest city in the west end of the Roman Empire, subsequently, Muslim governed it, it became Portuguese capital city after Reconquista, and Lisbon develops.


main routes of the Age of Discovery

< 4.  main routes of the Age of Discovery >
< 4. 大航海時代の主な航路 >

How did the Age of Discovery begin?
In many parts of the world in about the 13th century, it had been progressing that the agriculture development by reclamation and technical improvement and the growth of the city by traffic and commercial development.
Marine trade had been developing as the centering of some big consuming areas, such as China and East or South China Sea, India and Indian Ocean, Arabia and Arabian Sea, and Europe and Mediterranean Sea.
But the relation of the whole was weak.

In the latter half of the 14th century of East Asia, China prohibited overseas trading, Ryukyu closed the trading with China and Southeast Asia in the middle of the 16th century, and the country-led trade system retreated.
Islamic Empire that had born in the seventh century rose to power in an instant from Iberia to North Africa, India, Southeast Asia and ruled over the seaborne trade from the Mediterranean Sea to East China Sea.



In the occasion of Christian Crusade(the 11th-13th century), Venice of Italy harbor city beat Genoa, and then ruled over the seaborne trade of the east Mediterranean Sea.
The Venice exclusively imported pepper through Arabic merchants from India, and then prospered.
Therefore, Genoa proceeded to North Africa and Iberia along the Atlantic coast in search of new opportunities.
These both areas had already become Islam, and a lot of Jews who would support the voyage later had immigrated to it.


power relationships in about 1400 year

< 5power relationships in about 1400 year > 
< 5. 1400年頃の勢力図 > 

In those days, Europe was less advanced than Arab and China, there were few exports (slaves etc.), therefore Europe had to depend on gold and silver for the payment.
Furthermore, each country must finance a spate of huge war expenditure, and the gold and silver were necessary as the currency.
The gold was produced in North Africa, but Arabic merchant had ruled it.


Portugal was born in the twelfth century and was a small country, but had expelled Islam power by the end of the thirteenth century.
In the first half of the 14th century, Portugal began to invest the voyage under the support of Genovese economy and the technical, and in the latter half, the king and the merchants also came to do it.
At the start, Portugal captured a port city of Morocco in 1415, and finally advanced to the Cape of Good Hope discovery in 1488 after the challenge of several degrees.
After this, the heroic achievement of Vasco da Gama, Columbus and Magellan followed those, and Portugal and Spain came to face the golden age.


These voyages were fraught with great danger such as the shipwreck or a die of disease.
However, the voyager and the money-giver dreamed of a bonanza, and the Portuguese King desired the reinforcement of his nation and Christianity propagation, and continued the challenge.


In the arrival place, the trade and the propagation spread, but also a slaughter and a plunder spread.
Afterwards, Colonial domination came to be rampant.
Europe became rich, but many gold and silver were dug from the New World, and 10 million black ivory were taken away from Africa.
These aftereffects still continue.

But on the other hand, modern world-system (proposal by Immanuel Wallerstein) was born, and the world bound organically.



I walked a shopping center and a town of Lisbon and have felt a certain thing.
Now, there is not the passion that welled up in the 15th century, and the glory became afterglow.
I felt a periods of ebb and flow of the nation and the race.
However, when I saw that every species had been living a life together, I came to think that the misfortune of 400 years ago was only an imaginary thing.
I took encouragement from the fact that the person can live peacefully, and felt envious of it.

On the next time, I introduce a town walk of Lisbon.



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